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The critical thermal maximum: history and critique
A literature review of previous studies to describe the history of the study of thermal tolerance and show the chronological trends in the use of lethal temperature and critical thermal maximum methods and illustrate the diversity of taxa used in thermal-tolerance studies. Expand
The critical thermal maximum: data to support the onset of spasms as the definitive end point
Data is provided to support the onset of spasms (OS) as the definitive end point for determining thermal tolerance with the critical thermal maximum (CTMax) and the CTMax is measured. Expand
Critical Thermal Maxima in Salamanders
This method allows a quantitative determination of thermal tolerance by measuring the area of the polygon, the units being in square degrees, and the ultimate upper and lower incipient lethal temperatures can be determined by this method. Expand
The term "critical thermal maximum (CTM )" introduced by Cowles and Bogert (1944) is now well established in the literature. The CTM was originally defined as "the thermal point at which locomotoryExpand
Body Size and Metabolic Rate in Salamanders
These authors state that the relationship between body size and metabolism is similar for homeotherms and metabolism is generally more uniform when expressed as a power function of body weight. Expand
Thermoregulation in a Brooding Female Indian Python, Python molurus bivittatus
At varying environmental temperatures, measurements of body temperatures and gas exchange of a female Indian python show that during the brooding period this animal can regulate its body temperature by physiological means analogous to those in endotherms. Expand
Acute adjustment of thermal tolerance in vertebrate ectotherms following exposure to critical thermal maxima
Field evidence suggests that heat hardening is adaptive in that it provides an acute means of adjustment to extreme fluctuations in diurnal temperatures and indicates that hardening requires exposure to the CTM and may be the maximum CTM attainable by the animal. Expand
Energetics for Activity in the Diamondback Water Snake, Natrix rhombifera
The continued rise in blood glucose during recovery and the lack of any significant change in liver glycogen during either activity or recovery indicate a high dependence on gluconeogenesis to remove the lactate formed and to restore muscle glycogen. Expand
Glucose and lactate concentrations during activity in the leopard frog,Rana pipiens
Resting blood metabolite concentrations were determined at 19 different times of the daily cycle (15°C, LD12:12) and showed no diel cycle, suggestive of a diurnal cycle. Expand