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The Chlamydomonas Genome Reveals the Evolution of Key Animal and Plant Functions
TLDR
Analyses of the Chlamydomonas genome advance the understanding of the ancestral eukaryotic cell, reveal previously unknown genes associated with photosynthetic and flagellar functions, and establish links between ciliopathy and the composition and function of flagella. Expand
Characterization of Mammalian Selenoproteomes
TLDR
This work identified selenoprotein genes in sequenced mammalian genomes by methods that rely on identification of selenocysteine insertion RNA structures, the coding potential of UGA codons, and the presence of cysteine-containing homologs. Expand
How Selenium Has Altered Our Understanding of the Genetic Code
TLDR
While the fundamental mechanism of Sec insertion in these organisms appears to be similar, recent studies suggest that mammals evolved additional components that allow incorporation of multiple Secs into a single protein and provide stringent regulation of Sec biosynthesis. Expand
Selenoproteins: molecular pathways and physiological roles.
TLDR
Current knowledge about how these unique proteins perform their functions at the molecular level is discussed and new insights into the roles that selenoproteins play in human health are highlighted. Expand
Endogenous Hydrogen Sulfide Production Is Essential for Dietary Restriction Benefits
TLDR
It is found that sulfur amino acid restriction increased expression of the transsulfuration pathway (TSP) enzyme cystathionine γ-lyase (CGL), resulting in increased hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production and protection from hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury, consistent with evolutionary conservation of TSP-mediated H2S as a mediator of DR benefits with broad implications for clinical translation. Expand
Methionine sulfoxide reduction in mammals: characterization of methionine-R-sulfoxide reductases.
TLDR
It is found that different cellular compartments in mammals maintain a system for repair of oxidized methionine residues and that this function is tuned in enzyme- and stereo-specific manner. Expand
Genome sequencing reveals insights into physiology and longevity of the naked mole rat
TLDR
The sequencing and analysis of the naked mole rat genome is reported, which reveals unique genome features and molecular adaptations consistent with cancer resistance, poikilothermy, hairlessness and insensitivity to low oxygen, and altered visual function, circadian rythms and taste sensing. Expand
Comparative genomic analyses of nickel, cobalt and vitamin B12 utilization
TLDR
Investigation of environmental and other conditions and identity of organisms that show dependence on Ni or Co revealed that host-associated organisms (particularly obligate intracellular parasites and endosymbionts) have a tendency for loss of Ni/Co utilization. Expand
Crystal Structure of Formate Dehydrogenase H: Catalysis Involving Mo, Molybdopterin, Selenocysteine, and an Fe4S4 Cluster
TLDR
Crystal structures of the oxidized and reduced formate dehydrogenase H form have been determined, revealing a four-domain αβ structure with the molybdenum directly coordinated to selenium and both MGD cofactors, which suggest a reaction mechanism that directly involves SeCys140 and His141 in proton abstraction and the Molybdopterin, Lys44, and the Fe4S4 cluster in electron transfer. Expand
Methionine sulfoxide reductase regulation of yeast lifespan reveals reactive oxygen species-dependent and -independent components of aging.
TLDR
Under ROS-deficient, strictly anaerobic conditions, yeast lifespan was shorter, not affected by MsrA or MsrB, and further reduced by caloric restriction, suggesting a model wherein factors implicated in aging may influence the lifespan yet not be the cause of aging. Expand
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