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Glutamate induces the rapid formation of spine head protrusions in hippocampal slice cultures
TLDR
The results suggest that spontaneously released glutamate is sufficient to activate nearby spines, which can then lead to the growth of new postsynaptic processes connecting to a presynaptic site, and thus can compare their recent history with that of neighboring synapses and modify local connectivity accordingly. Expand
Diverse Modes of Axon Elaboration in the Developing Neocortex
TLDR
In vivo two-photon time-lapse microscopy was used to image axons in the neocortex of green fluorescent protein-transgenic mice over the first 3 wk of postnatal development, and differences in their structure and dynamics likely reflect distinct intrinsic growth programs for axons of long projection neurons versus local interneurons. Expand
Increased axonal bouton dynamics in the aging mouse cortex
TLDR
The data uncover a striking and unexpected increase in axonal bouton dynamics in the aged cortex, which suggests that increased synaptic structural dynamics in specific cortical circuits may be a mechanism for age-related cognitive decline. Expand
Activin induces cortical interneuron identity and differentiation in embryonic stem cell-derived telencephalic neural precursors.
TLDR
It is shown that Activin directly inhibits the mitogenic sonic hedgehog pathway in a Gli3-dependent manner while enhancing retinoic acid signalling, the pro-neurogenic pathway, and provides telencephalic neural precursors with positional cues that specifically promote the acquisition of a calretinininterneuron fate by controlling the expression of genes that regulate cortical interneuron identity. Expand
In-vivo single neuron axotomy triggers axon regeneration to restore synaptic density in specific cortical circuits.
TLDR
Remarkably, although never reconnecting to the original targets, axons consistently form new boutons at comparable prelesion synaptic densities, implying the existence of intrinsic homeostatic programmes, which regulate synaptic numbers on regenerating axons. Expand
AMPA‐receptor activation regulates the diffusion of a membrane marker in parallel with dendritic spine motility in the mouse hippocampus
TLDR
Results show that glutamate receptors regulate the mobility of molecules in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane through an action upon the actin cytoskeleton, suggesting a novel mechanism for the regulation of postsynaptic receptor density and composition. Expand
Systems genetics identifies Sestrin 3 as a regulator of a proconvulsant gene network in human epileptic hippocampus.
TLDR
RNA sequencing analysis in a mouse model of TLE shows the proconvulsive module is preserved across-species, specific to the epileptic hippocampus and upregulated in chronic epilepsy, and it is demonstrated that SESN3 positively regulates the module in macrophages, microglia and neurons. Expand
In vivo single branch axotomy induces GAP-43–dependent sprouting and synaptic remodeling in cerebellar cortex
TLDR
The findings show the requirement of GAP-43 in sustaining synaptic stability and promoting the initiation of axonal regrowth in axonal structural plasticity by using climbing fibers as a model, and the need for downregulating the protein causes a significant increase in the turnover of presynaptic boutons. Expand
Pharmacogenetic stimulation of cholinergic pedunculopontine neurons reverses motor deficits in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease
BackgroundPatients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) often present with axial symptoms, including postural- and gait difficulties that respond poorly to dopaminergic agents. Although deep brainExpand
EphrinB2 drives perivascular invasion and proliferation of glioblastoma stem-like cells
TLDR
The results indicate that targeting ephrin-B2 may be an effective strategy for the simultaneous inhibition of invasion and proliferation in GBM. Expand
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