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Myelination, the process in which oligodendrocytes coat CNS axons with a myelin sheath, represents an important but poorly understood form of neural plasticity that may be sexually dimorphic in the adult CNS. Remission of multiple sclerosis during pregnancy led us to hypothesize that remyelination is enhanced in the maternal brain. Here we report an(More)
Acute spinal cord injury (SCI) produces tissue damage that continues to evolve days and weeks after the initial insult, with corresponding functional impairments. Reducing the extent of progressive tissue loss ('neuroprotection') following SCI should result in a better recovery from SCI, but treatment options have thus far been limited. In this study, we(More)
The capacity of minocycline to alleviate disease for several neurological disorders in animals is increasingly being recognised. Indeed, that one drug alone can attenuate the severity of disease in stroke, multiple sclerosis, spinal-cord injury, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is astounding. In this review, we(More)
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are implicated in multiple sclerosis where one of their roles may be to facilitate the transmigration of circulating leukocytes into the CNS. Studies have focused on only a few MMPs, and much remains unknown of which of the 23 MMP family members is/are critical to the multiple sclerosis disease process. Using quantitative(More)
Interferon-beta and glatiramer acetate (GA) are the two main groups of drugs used in the treatment of MS. Notably, while both ultimately decrease CNS inflammation, they do so by very different mechanisms. Interferon-beta has potent activity at the blood-brain barrier and impairs the trafficking of inflammatory cells into the CNS. In contrast, GA has(More)
Preclinical studies have attributed neuroprotective properties to the antibiotic minocycline. Animal studies and early clinical trials support its use in several neurological diseases. In animal spinal cord injury models, minocycline improved neurological and histological outcomes, reduced neuronal and oligodendroglial apoptosis, decreased microglial(More)
The objective of the current study was to investigate whether minocycline improves the effect of an existing multiple sclerosis (MS) medication, interferon-beta, on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice. When used at sub-optimal doses, neither medication affected EAE but their combination at these doses led to the significant alleviation(More)
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are expressed in the developing, healthy adult and diseased CNS. We emphasize the regulation of neurogenesis and oligodendrogenesis by MMPs during CNS development, and highlight physiological roles of MMPs in the healthy adult CNS, such as in synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. Nonetheless, MMPs as "the good guys" go(More)
There have been significant advances in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) in recent years, but further improvement in therapy is required as not all patients have responded optimally. An approach to enhancing MS treatment is to combine drugs that impact on different aspects of the disease process. We have described that the tetracycline derivative,(More)
The occurrence of neuroinflammation after spinal cord injury (SCI) is well established, but its function is debated, with both beneficial and detrimental consequences ascribed. A discriminate of the role of neuroinflammation may be the time period after SCI, and there is evidence to favor early neuroinflammation being undesirable, whereas the later evolving(More)