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Ejaculates function as an integrated unit to ensure male fertility and paternity, can have a complex structure, and can experience multiple episodes of selection. Current studies on the evolution of ejaculates typically focus on phenotypic variation in sperm number, size, or related traits such as testes size as adaptations to postcopulatory male-male(More)
An evolutionary conflict often exists between the sexes in regard to female mating patterns. Females can benefit from polyandry, whereas males mating with polyandrous females lose reproductive opportunities because of sperm competition. Where this conflict occurs, the evolution of mechanisms whereby males can control female remating, often at a fitness cost(More)
Quantity discrimination is a basic form of numerical competence where an animal distinguishes which of two amounts is greater in size. Whilst quantity discrimination in rats has been investigated via training paradigms, rats' natural quantity discrimination abilities without explicit training for a desired response have not been explored. This study(More)
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