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Extrahepatic factors, such as increased gut permeability and bacteria from the gut, have been shown to play a role in D-galactosamine toxicity in rats. Because bacterial endotoxin activates Kupffer cells, the purpose of this study was to clarify the role of Kupffer cells in the mechanism of D-galactosamine hepatotoxicity in rats and determine whether(More)
The aim of this study was to investigate whether reduction in blood estrogen by removal of the ovaries would decrease the sensitivity of female rats to early alcohol-induced liver injury using an enteral ethanol feeding model, and if so, whether estrogen replacement would compensate. Livers from ovariectomized rats with or without estrogen replacement after(More)
This study investigated the role of endotoxin in the hypermetabolic state or swift increase in alcohol metabolism (SIAM) due to acute ethanol exposure. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (100-120 g) were given ethanol (5 g/kg) by gavage. Endotoxin measured in plasma from portal blood was not detectable in saline-treated controls; however, 90 min after ethanol,(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine whether early alcohol-induced liver injury (ALI) in females is associated with changes in CD14 on Kupffer cells, activation of hepatic nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB, and expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha mRNA. Male and female rats were given high-fat control or ethanol-containing diets for 4 wk using the(More)
Mortality associated with endotoxin shock is likely mediated by Kupffer cells, alveolar macrophages, and circulating neutrophils. Acute dietary glycine prevents mortality and blunts increases in serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) following endotoxin in rats. Furthermore, acute glycine blunts activation of Kupffer cells, alveolar macrophages, and(More)
CD14 is a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) receptor distributed largely in macrophages, monocytes, and neutrophils; however, the role of CD14 in activation of Kupffer cells by LPS remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine if different methods used to isolate Kupffer cells affect CD14. Kupffer cells were isolated by collagenase (0.025%) or(More)
Glycine prevents hepatic damage caused by hypoxia-reoxygenation, diminishes mortality due to endotoxin and minimizes alcoholic liver injury by decreasing blood ethanol. Our purpose was to investigate the effect of dietary glycine during recovery from early alcohol-induced injury, using a model that mimics the clinical presentation and histopathology with(More)
Activation of Kupffer cells by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plays a pivotal role in the onset of pathophysiological events that occur during endotoxemia and intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) is involved in LPS-stimulated cytokine production. Recently, it was shown that Kupffer cells contain a glycine-gated chloride channel. Because taurine, a ubiquitous(More)
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