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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated dementia (HAD) is common among clade B HIV-infected individuals, but less common and less severe among individuals infected with clade C HIV-1, suggesting clade-specific differences in neuropathogenicity. Although differences in neuropathogenicity have been investigated in vitro using viral proteins responsible(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-associated dementia (HAD) is correlated with increased monocyte migration to the brain, and the incidence of HAD among otherwise asymptomatic subjects appears to be lower in India than in the United States and Europe (1 to 2% versus 15 to 30%). Because of the genetic differences between HIV-1 strains circulating(More)
As the HIV-1 epidemic enters its fourth decade, HIV-1 associated neurological disorders (HAND) continue to be a major concern in the infected population, despite the widespread use of anti-retroviral therapy. Advancing age and increased life expectancy of the HIV-1 infected population have been shown to increase the risk of cognitive dysfunction. Over the(More)
Scope and Purpese-The emphasis on Just-in-time production philosophy has led to the consideration of the early-tardy problem in scheduling theory with various cost structures where the due-dates (for completion of the jobs) are either fixed or treated as decision variables. In this article, we study an important subclass of the problem and present a new(More)
HIV-1 Clade C (Subtype C; HIV-1C) is responsible for greater than 50% of infections worldwide. Unlike clade B HIV-1 (Subtype B; HIV-1B), which is known to cause HIV associated dementia (HAD) in approximately 15% to 30% of the infected individuals, HIV-1C has been linked with lower prevalence of HAD (0 to 6%) in India and Ethiopia. However, recent studies(More)
Monotherapy with (-)2',3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine (3TC) leads to the appearance of a drug-resistant variant of human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) with the methionine-184 --> valine (M184V) substitution in the reverse transcriptase (RT). Despite resulting drug resistance, treatment for more than 48 weeks is associated with a lower plasma viral(More)
RNA and DNA aptamers specific for HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) can inhibit reverse transcription in vitro. RNA aptamers have been shown to potently block HIV-1 replication in culture. We previously reported mutants of HIV-1 RT with substitutions N255D or N265D that display resistance to the DNA aptamer RT1t49. Variant viruses bearing these mutations(More)