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Outpatients diagnosed as borderline (N = 100) were prospectively followed for 6-36 months and examined from phenomenologic developmental, and family history perspectives. At index evaluation, 66 met criteria for recurrent depressive, dysthymic, cyclothymic, or bipolar II disorders, and 16 for those of schizotypal personality. Other subgroups included(More)
Twenty percent of a cohort of 206 outpatient depressives with no past bipolar history switched during prospective observation. These 41 probands developed manic periods on the average of 6.4 years (median 4, range 1-25) after their first depressive episode. The change in polarity occurred throughout the life span, but was most common in adolescence and(More)
Patients with anxiety and depressive states were divided into 4 groups: those with panic attacks only, those with panic disorder and secondary depression, those with depression and secondary panic attacks, and those with depression only. Clinical and familial differences between the groups are described. Patients with both depression and panic attacks had(More)
BACKGROUND Although most personality constructs have been standardized in population studies, cyclothymic, depressive, irritable and hyperthymic temperaments putatively linked to mood disorders have been classically derived from clinical observations. METHODS We therefore administered the semi-structured affective temperament schedule of Memphis, Pisa,(More)
One hundred patients with "mild" depressive states, variously referred to as "situational," "reactive," or "neurotic," were studied. During a three- to four-year prospective follow-up, 4% had developed bipolar I, 14% bipolar II, and 22% unipolar disorders with predominantly favorable social outcome. Most of the remainder were suffering from nonaffective(More)
Analysis of family history and antidepressant drug response variables of 100 "neurotic" depressives followed up prospectively over three to four years disclosed that primary depressions (unipolar and bipolar) could be distinguished from nonprimary cases by (1) the early occurrence of "pharmacological-hypomania;" (2) family history of bipolar illness; (3)(More)
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