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Dendritic cells (DCs) capture Ags or viruses in peripheral tissue to transport them to lymphoid organs to induce cellular T cell responses. Recently, a DC-specific C-type lectin was identified, DC-specific ICAM-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN), that functions as cell adhesion receptor mediating both DC migration and T cell activation. DC-SIGN also functions(More)
Host cells impose a broad range of obstacles to the replication of retroviruses. Tetherin (also known as CD317, BST-2 or HM1.24) impedes viral release by retaining newly budded HIV-1 virions on the surface of cells. HIV-1 Vpu efficiently counteracts this restriction. Here, we show that HIV-1 Vpu induces the depletion of tetherin from cells. We demonstrate(More)
The Nef protein of primate lentiviruses downregulates the cell surface expression of CD4 through a two-step process. First, Nef connects the cytoplasmic tail of CD4 with adaptor protein complexes (AP), thereby inducing the formation of CD4-specific clathrin-coated pits that rapidly endocytose the viral receptor. Second, Nef targets internalized CD4(More)
Virus assembly and interaction with host-cell proteins occur at length scales below the diffraction limit of visible light. Novel super-resolution microscopy techniques achieve nanometer resolution of fluorescently labeled molecules. The cellular restriction factor tetherin (also known as CD317, BST-2 or HM1.24) inhibits the release of human(More)
The Nef protein of primate lentiviruses triggers the accelerated endocytosis of CD4 and of class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC-I), thereby down-modulating the cell surface expression of these receptors. Nef acts as a connector between the CD4 cytoplasmic tail and intracellular sorting pathways both in the Golgi and at the plasma membrane,(More)
Ligation of the Fas (CD95) receptor leads to an apoptotic death signal in T cells, B cells, and macrophages. However, human CD34 ϩ –derived dendritic cells (DCs) and mouse DCs, regardless of their maturation state, are not susceptible to Fas-induced cell death. This resistance correlates with the constitutive expression of the Fas-associated death(More)
The sequence of events leading to clathrin-coated pit (CCP) nucleation on the cell surface and to the incorporation of receptors into these endocytic structures is still imperfectly understood. In particular, the question remains as to whether receptor tails initiate the assembly of the coat proteins or whether receptors migrate into preformed CCP. This(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are essential for the early events of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Model systems of HIV sexual transmission have shown that DCs expressing the DC-specific C-type lectin DC-SIGN capture and internalize HIV at mucosal surfaces and efficiently transfer HIV to CD4+ T cells in lymph nodes, where viral replication occurs.(More)
HIV-1 infects immature dendritic cells (iDCs), but infection is inefficient compared with activated CD4+ T cells and only involves a small subset of iDCs. We analyzed whether this could be attributed to specific cellular restrictions during the viral life cycle. To study env-independent restriction to HIV-1 infection, we used a single-round infection assay(More)
In the early events of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, immature dendritic cells (DCs) expressing the DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) receptor capture small amounts of HIV-1 on mucosal surfaces and spread viral infection to CD4(+) T cells in lymph nodes (22, 34, 45). RNA interference has(More)