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Hundreds of small RNAs of approximately 22 nucleotides, collectively named microRNAs (miRNAs), have been discovered recently in animals and plants. Although their functions are being unravelled, their mechanism of biogenesis remains poorly understood. miRNAs are transcribed as long primary transcripts (pri-miRNAs) whose maturation occurs through sequential(More)
Small RNAs of 20-30 nucleotides can target both chromatin and transcripts, and thereby keep both the genome and the transcriptome under extensive surveillance. Recent progress in high-throughput sequencing has uncovered an astounding landscape of small RNAs in eukaryotic cells. Various small RNAs of distinctive characteristics have been found and can be(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute a large family of noncoding RNAs that function as guide molecules in diverse gene silencing pathways. Current efforts are focused on the regulatory function of miRNAs, while little is known about how these unusual genes themselves are regulated. Here we present the first direct evidence that miRNA genes are transcribed by RNA(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that function as guide molecules in RNA silencing. Targeting most protein-coding transcripts, miRNAs are involved in nearly all developmental and pathological processes in animals. The biogenesis of miRNAs is under tight temporal and spatial control, and their dysregulation is associated with many human diseases,(More)
The recent discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) took many by surprise because of their unorthodox features and widespread functions. These tiny, approximately 22-nucleotide, RNAs control several pathways including developmental timing, haematopoiesis, organogenesis, apoptosis, cell proliferation and possibly even tumorigenesis. Among the most pressing questions(More)
RNase III proteins play key roles in microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis. The nuclear RNase III Drosha cleaves primary miRNAs (pri-miRNAs) to release hairpin-shaped pre-miRNAs that are subsequently cut by the cytoplasmic RNase III Dicer to generate mature miRNAs. While Dicer (class III) and other simple RNase III proteins (class I) have been studied intensively,(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute a novel, phylogenetically extensive family of small RNAs ( approximately 22 nucleotides) with potential roles in gene regulation. Apart from the finding that miRNAs are produced by Dicer from the precursors of approximately 70 nucleotides (pre-miRNAs), little is known about miRNA biogenesis. Some miRNA genes have been found in(More)
The Drosha-DGCR8 complex initiates microRNA maturation by precise cleavage of the stem loops that are embedded in primary transcripts (pri-miRNAs). Here we propose a model for this process that is based upon evidence from both computational and biochemical analyses. A typical metazoan pri-miRNA consists of a stem of approximately 33 bp, with a terminal loop(More)
Small RNA-mediated gene silencing (RNA silencing) has emerged as a major regulatory pathway in eukaryotes. Identification of the key factors involved in this pathway has been a subject of rigorous investigation in recent years. In humans, small RNAs are generated by Dicer and assembled into the effector complex known as RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC)(More)
From sites of transcription in the nucleus to the outreaches of the cytoplasm, messenger RNAs are associated with RNA-binding proteins. These proteins influence pre-mRNA processing as well as the transport, localization, translation and stability of mRNAs. Recent discoveries have shown that one group of these proteins marks exon exon junctions and has a(More)