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Outside the laboratory, human movement typically involves redundant effector systems. How the nervous system selects among the task-equivalent solutions may provide insights into how movement is controlled. We propose a process model of movement generation that accounts for the kinematics of goal-directed pointing movements performed with a redundant arm.(More)
PURPOSE This study aimed to evaluate the benefit of using low-intensity running or electromyostimulation (EMS) to hasten the recovery process from eccentric-contraction-induced injury. METHODS Before and 30 min, 24 h, 48 h, and 96 h after a one-legged downhill run, electrical stimulations were applied to the femoral nerve of healthy volunteers.(More)
The use of electrical stimulation (ES) can contribute to our knowledge of how our neuromuscular system can adapt to physical stress or unloading. Although it has been recently challenged, the standard technique used to explore central modifications is the twitch interpolated method which consists in superimposing single twitches or high-frequency doublets(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of three types of recovery intervention to neuromuscular function after high-intensity uphill running exercise. The 20-min recovery interventions were (i) passive, (ii) active (running at 50 % of maximal aerobic speed), and (iii) low-frequency electromyostimulation. Evoked twitch and maximal voluntary(More)
The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus that emerged in southern China in the mid-1990s has in recent years evolved into the first HPAI panzootic. In many countries where the virus was detected, the virus was successfully controlled, whereas other countries face periodic reoccurrence despite significant control efforts. A central question is(More)
During the second half of 2005, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus spread rapidly from central Asia to eastern Europe. The relative roles of wild migratory birds and the poultry trade are still unclear, given that little is yet known about the range of virus hosts, precise movements of migratory birds, or routes of illegal poultry trade. We(More)
The objectives of this study were to describe the spatio-temporal pattern of an epidemic of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in Vietnam and to identify potential risk factors for the introduction and maintenance of infection within the poultry population. The results indicate that during the time period 2004-early 2006 a sequence of three epidemic(More)
OBJECTIVE To identify patients with an inaccurate diagnosis of hypoglycemia and discuss predisposing factors. METHODS We describe our patient's clinical presentation, laboratory work-up, hospital course, and follow-up and review similar cases from the literature. RESULTS A 27-year-old woman with Raynaud phenomenon was admitted because of symptomatic(More)
The aim of this study was to compare the use of transcutaneous vs. motor nerve stimulation in the evaluation of low-frequency fatigue. Nine female and eleven male subjects, all physically active, performed a 30-min downhill run on a motorized treadmill. Knee extensor muscle contractile characteristics were measured before, immediately after (Post), and 30(More)
We investigated the physiological consequences of one of the most extreme exercises realized by humans in race conditions: a 166-km mountain ultra-marathon (MUM) with 9500 m of positive and negative elevation change. For this purpose, (i) the fatigue induced by the MUM and (ii) the recovery processes over two weeks were assessed. Evaluation of neuromuscular(More)