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In this review we will critically assess the hypothesis that the reinforcing effect of virtually all drugs of abuse is primarily dependent on activation of the mesolimbic dopamine system. The focus is on five classes of abused drugs: psychostimulants, opiates, ethanol, cannabinoids and nicotine. For each of these drug classes, the pharmacological and(More)
Increases in dopamine and glutamate transmission in the nucleus accumbens independently promote the reinstatement of cocaine seeking, an animal model of relapse. Here we have tested whether cocaine reinstatement in rats depends on interactions between accumbal dopamine and glutamate systems that are mediated by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-mediated kinase II (CaMKII).(More)
Cocaine self-administration alters patterns of gene expression in the brain that may underlie cocaine-induced neuronal plasticity. In the present study, male Sprague Dawley rats were allowed to self-administer cocaine (0.25 mg/infusion) 2 h/d for 14 d, followed by 7 d of forced abstinence. Compared with yoked saline control rats, cocaine self-administration(More)
Cocaine addiction in human addicts is characterized by a high rate of relapse following successful detoxification. Relapse to drug taking/seeking can be precipitated by several stimuli including, but not limited to, re-exposure to cocaine itself. In order to understand the mechanisms underlying cocaine craving, a substantial effort has been devoted to(More)
Accumulating evidence suggests that metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are involved in both cocaine reinforcement and the reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior. In the present experiments, rats were trained to self-administer cocaine under fixed ratio (for cocaine priming-induced reinstatement) or second-order (for cocaine cue-induced(More)
A growing body of evidence indicates that enhanced AMPA-mediated glutamate transmission in the core of the nucleus accumbens is critically involved in cocaine priming-induced reinstatement of drug seeking, an animal model of relapse. However, the extent to which increased glutamate transmission in the other major subregion of the nucleus accumbens, the(More)
The time course of cell differentiation and the presence of histochemically defined areas in brainstem auditory nuclei were examined in developing bullfrogs, Rana catesbeiana, using cresyl violet staining and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) histochemistry. In the medulla, the dorsolateral nucleus (DLN) can be seen as a distinct structure in its adult location(More)
Travel time reliability is a measure that is commonly extracted from travel time measurements. It has served as a vital indicator of the transportation system's performance making the concept of obtaining reliability from travel time data very useful. Travel time is a good indicator of the performance of a particular highway segment. However, it does not(More)
Increases in dopamine and glutamate transmission in the nucleus accumbens independently promote the reinstatement of cocaine seeking, an animal model of relapse. Here we have tested whether cocaine reinstatement in rats depends on interactions between accumbal dopamine and glutamate systems that are mediated by Ca 21 /calmodulin-mediated kinase II (CaMKII).(More)
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