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Thiazolidinediones are a new class of antidiabetic agent that improve insulin sensitivity and reduce plasma glucose and blood pressure in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Although these agents can bind and activate an orphan nuclear receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), there is no direct evidence to conclusively implicate(More)
The three peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. They share a high degree of structural homology with all members of the superfamily, particularly in the DNA-binding domain and ligand- and cofactor-binding domain. Many cellular and systemic roles have been(More)
The nuclear receptor family of PPARs was named for the ability of the original member to induce hepatic peroxisome proliferation in mice in response to xenobiotic stimuli. However, studies on the action and structure of the 3 human PPAR isotypes (PPARalpha, PPARdelta, and PPARgamma) suggest that these moieties are intimately involved in nutrient sensing and(More)
St John's wort (SJW), an extract of the medicinal plant Hypericum perforatum, is widely used as a herbal antidepressant. Recently, this agent has been found to adversely affect the metabolism of various coadministered drugs. Steroid X receptor (SXR), an orphan nuclear receptor, induces hepatic cytochrome P450 gene expression in response to diverse(More)
We report a woman with primary amenorrhoea and infertility associated with an isolated deficiency of pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), but normal luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion. Ovulation was induced by administration of exogenous FSH and resulted in a successful pregnancy. Sequence analysis of the FSH beta-subunit gene indicated that she is(More)
Several missense mutations in the ligand-binding domain of human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma have been described in subjects with dominantly inherited severe insulin resistance associated with partial lipodystrophy, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. These mutant receptors behave as dominant-negative inhibitors of PPARgamma signaling(More)
Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma, a nuclear receptor highly expressed in adipocytes, induces the differentiation of murine preadipocyte cell lines. Recently, thiazolidinediones (TZDs), a novel class of insulin-sensitizing compounds effective in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) have been(More)
The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) regulates transcription in response to prostanoid and thiazolidinedione ligands and promotes adipocyte differentiation. The amino-terminal A/B domain of this receptor contains a consensus mitogen-activated protein kinase site in a region common to PPARgamma1 and -gamma2(More)
CONTEXT Adiponectin has been suggested to play a role in the etiopathogenesis of at least some forms of insulin resistance, in part based on a strong correlation between plasma levels of adiponectin and measures of insulin sensitivity. OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to establish whether this relationship is maintained at extreme levels of(More)
Congenital hypothyroidism is the most common neonatal metabolic disorder and results in severe neurodevelopmental impairment and infertility if untreated. Congenital hypothyroidism is usually sporadic but up to 2% of thyroid dysgenesis is familial, and congenital hypothyroidism caused by organification defects is often recessively inherited. The candidate(More)