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PURPOSE It is generally accepted that blood-brain barrier (BBB) failure occurs as a result of CNS diseases, including epilepsy. However, evidences also suggest that BBB failure may be an etiological factor contributing to the development of seizures. METHODS We monitored the onset of seizures in patients undergoing osmotic disruption of BBB (BBBD)(More)
S100B, established as prevalent protein of the central nervous system, is a peripheral biomarker for blood-brain barrier disruption and often also a marker of brain injury. However, reports of extracranial sources of S100B, especially from adipose tissue, may confound its interpretation in the clinical setting. The objective of this study was to(More)
Neurological diseases are often associated with cerebrovascular dysfunction and changes in blood-brain barrier (BBB) function. This is important for two seemingly conflicting reasons. On the one hand, a leaky BBB may lead to brain disease by allowing extravasation of cells and molecules normally segregated in the periphery, while on the other hand an intact(More)
Status epilepticus (SE) is one of the most serious manifestations of epilepsy. Systemic inflammation and damage of blood-brain barrier (BBB) are etiologic cofactors in the pathogenesis of pilocarpine SE while acute osmotic disruption of the BBB is sufficient to elicit seizures. Whether an inflammatory-vascular-BBB mechanism could apply to the(More)
PURPOSE Occurrence of brain damage is frequently associated with abnormal blood-brain barrier (BBB) function. Two brain-specific proteins, S100beta and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) are released systemically in a variety of neurological diseases, but S100beta levels sometimes rise in the absence of neuronal damage, suggesting that S100beta is a marker of(More)
BACKGROUND Studies have shown that patients suffering from depression or schizophrenia often have immunological alterations that can be detected in the blood. Others reported a possible link between inflammation, a microgliosis and the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in suicidal patients. Serum S100B is a marker of BBB function commonly used to study(More)
The CNS is shielded from systemic influences by two separate barriers, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-to-CSF barrier. Failure of either barrier bears profound significance in the etiology and diagnosis of several neurological diseases. Furthermore, selective opening of BBB tight junctions provides an opportunity for delivery of otherwise BBB(More)
Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 has been shown to contribute to blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, infarct formation, and hemorrhagic transformation after ischemic stroke. The cellular source of MMP-9 detectable in the ischemic brain remains controversial since extracellular molecules in the brain may be derived from blood. We here demonstrate that bone(More)
Active and passive tobacco smoke are associated with the dysfunction of endothelial physiology and vascular impairment. Studies correlating the effects of smoking and the brain microvasculature at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) level have been largely limited to few selective compounds that are present in the tobacco smoke (TS) yet the pathophysiology of(More)
CONTEXT Human and animal studies have suggested an underlying inflammatory mechanism for a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. To date, most available reports focused on adult patients. OBJECTIVE We wished to test the hypothesis that the first psychotic episode in youth is associated with inflammation. PATIENTS We studied(More)