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Defining the extent of epistasis – the non-independence of the effects of mutations – is essential for understanding the relationship of genotype, phenotype, and fitness in biological systems. The applications cover many areas of biological research, including biochemistry, genomics, protein and systems engineering, medicine, and evolutionary biology.(More)
The elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates) being the extant survivors of one of the earliest offshoots of the vertebrate evolutionary tree are good model organisms to study the primitive vertebrate conditions. They play a significant role in maintaining the ecological balance and have high economic value. Due to over-exploitation and illegal fishing(More)
BACKGROUND D. cinerea are the chief source of drug compounds that are active against various ailments such as jaundice, inflammations rheumatism, fever, asthma, body ache, chest problems, toothache, ulcers, wounds, eye diseases and have an aphrodisiac property. In present study, It was aimed to test the hepatoprotective activity of the plant. MATERIAL AND(More)
BACKGROUND The analgesic activity of petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts of Semecarpus anacardium was investigated by tail flicking and writhing method using acetyl salicylic acid as the standard reference. MATERIALS AND METHODS The staircase method was adopted for the determination of the acute toxicity. LD(50) of the petroleum ether(More)
A model of B cell affinity selection is proposed, and an explanation of peripheral tolerance mechanisms through antibody repertoire editing is presented. We show that affinity discrimination between B cells is driven by a competition between obtaining T cell help and removal of B cells from the light zone, either through apoptosis or by a return to the dark(More)
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