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It is known that the springlike properties of muscles provide automatic load compensation during weight bearing. How crucial is sensory control of the motor output given these basic properties of the locomotor system? To address this question, a neuromuscular model was used to test two hypotheses. (1) Stretch reflexes are too weak and too delayed to(More)
The aim of this study was to investigate how humans correct ongoing arm movements while standing. Specifically, we sought to understand whether the postural adjustments in the legs required for online corrections of arm movements are predictive or rely on feedback from the moving limb. To answer this question we measured online corrections in arm and leg(More)
In the absence of sensory input, the central nervous system can generate a rhythmical pattern of coordinated activation of limb muscles. Contracting muscles have spring-like properties. If synergistic muscles are co-activated in the right way, sustained locomotion can occur. What is the role of sensory input in this scheme? In this chapter we first discuss(More)
OBJECTIVE To test a functional electric stimulation (FES)-assisted exercise therapy system for improvement of motor function of the hemiplegic upper extremity. DESIGN A before-after trial, with 2-month follow-up. SETTING A university research laboratory. PARTICIPANTS A convenience sample of 6 subjects (3 men, 3 women). Main inclusion criteria were(More)
To make an accurate movement, the CNS has to overcome the inherent complexities of the multijoint limb. For example, interaction torques arise when motion of individual arm segments propagates to adjacent segments causing their movement without any muscle contractions. Since these passive joint torques significantly add to the overall torques generated by(More)
This report concerns a test of the hypothesis that gain in the stretch reflex pathway of cat medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle during locomotion increases after denervation of its synergists, lateral gastrocnemius (LG), soleus (SOL) and plantaris (PL) muscles. In four cats, MG, tibialis anterior (TA) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles were implanted with(More)
Current diagnosis and treatment of movement impairment post-stroke is based on the subjective assessment of select movements by a trained clinical specialist. However, modern low-cost motion capture technology allows for the development of automated quantitative assessment of motor impairment. Such outcome measures are crucial for advancing post-stroke(More)
Neural control of movement can only be realized though the interaction between the mechanical properties of the limb and the environment. Thus, a fundamental question is whether anatomy has evolved to simplify neural control by shaping these interactions in a beneficial way. This inductive data-driven study analyzed the patterns of muscle actions across(More)
The study of neuromuscular control of movement in humans is accomplished with numerous technologies. Non-invasive methods for investigating neuromuscular function include transcranial magnetic stimulation, electromyography, and three-dimensional motion capture. The advent of readily available and cost-effective virtual reality solutions has expanded the(More)