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We investigated the transport of cationic neurotoxins and neurotransmitters by the potential-sensitive organic transporter OCT3 and its steroid sensitivity using heterologous expression systems and also analyzed the expression of OCT3 in the brain. When expressed in mammalian cells, OCT3 mediates the uptake of the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium(More)
In mammals, active transport of organic solutes across plasma membranes was thought to be primarily driven by the Na+ gradient. Here we report the cloning and functional characterization of a H(+)-coupled transporter of oligopeptides and peptide-derived antibiotics from rabbit small intestine. This new protein, named PepT1, displays an unusually broad(More)
PURPOSE Neuronal cell death has been reported in retinas of humans with diabetic retinopathy and in diabetic rat models. Little is known about neuronal cell death in mouse models of diabetic retinopathy. This study was designed to determine whether neurons are lost in diabetic mouse retinas and whether the loss involves an apoptotic process. METHODS(More)
The transport of L-carnitine (4-N-trimethylamino-3-hydroxybutyric acid), a compound known to be transported by the organic cation transporter/carnitine transporter OCTN2, was studied in immortalized rat brain endothelial cells (RBE4). The cells were found to take up L-carnitine by a sodium-dependent process. This uptake process was saturable with an(More)
There is evidence from recent studies that the brain endothelium (of capillaries and/or larger vessels) may serve as a specific target for serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)]. This neurotransmitter is expected to be involved in the regulation of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and/or of the cerebral blood flow via receptor-mediated mechanisms.(More)
Na+-coupled carboxylate transporters (NaCs) mediate the uptake of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates in mammalian tissues. Of these transporters, NaC3 (formerly known as Na+-coupled dicarboxylate transporter 3, NaDC3/SDCT2) and NaC2 (formerly known as Na+-coupled citrate transporter, NaCT) have been shown to be expressed in brain. There is, however,(More)
In the present study, we report on the molecular cloning and functional characterization of mouse NaCT (Na+-coupled citrate transporter), the mouse orthologue of Drosophila Indy. Mouse NaCT consists of 572 amino acids and is highly similar to rat and human NaCTs in primary sequence. The mouse nact gene coding for the transporter is approx. 23 kb long and(More)
PURPOSE The purpose of this investigation was to provide evidence for the expression of the cystine/glutamate transporter (x(c)(-)) in the human retinal pigment epithelial cell line ARPE-19, clone the light chain of the transporter from an ARPE-19 cell cDNA library and study its function, and investigate the regulation of this transporter by nitric oxide(More)
Taurine is an essential amino acid in some mammals and is conditionally essential in humans. Taurine is an abundant component of meat and fish-based foods and has been used as an oral supplement in the treatment of disorders such as cystic fibrosis and hypertension. The purpose of this investigation was to identity the relative contributions of the solute(More)
Although the cerebral accumulation of guanidinoacetate (GAA) contributes to neurological complications in S-adenosylmethionine:guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency, how GAA is abnormally distributed in the brain remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the transport of GAA across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and in(More)