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Microglia mediate multiple facets of neuroinflammation, including cytotoxicity, repair, regeneration, and immunosuppression due to their ability to acquire diverse activation states, or phenotypes. Modulation of microglial phenotype is an appealing neurotherapeutic strategy but a comprehensive study of classical and more novel microglial phenotypic markers(More)
OBJECTIVE Activated microglia play a central role in the inflammatory and excitotoxic component of various acute and chronic neurological disorders. However, the mechanisms leading to their activation in the latter context are poorly understood, particularly the involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), which are critical for excitotoxicity in(More)
Elderly patients who have an acute illness or who undergo surgery often experience cognitive decline. The pathophysiologic mechanisms that cause neurodegeneration resulting in cognitive decline, including protein deposition and neuroinflammation, also play a role in animal models of surgery-induced cognitive decline. With the aging of the population,(More)
BACKGROUND Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a prominent role in neuroprotection against perinatal brain injury. Dexmedetomidine, a selective agonist of α2-adrenergic receptors, also provides neuroprotection against glutamate-induced damage. Because adrenergic receptor agonists can modulate BDNF expression, our goal was to examine whether(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced neovasculature is immature and leaky. We tested if coexpression of angiopoietin-1 (ANG1) with VEGF improves blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity and VEGF neuroprotective and neurorestorative effects using a permanent distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) model. Adult CD-1 mice were injected with 2 ×(More)
Severe brain injuries, most often occurring in young subjects, are a major source of lost work years. These injuries are medical and surgical emergencies. Prehospital management of severe brain injuries requires intubation and mechanical ventilation aimed at normal arterial carbon dioxide pressure. Signs of transtentorial herniation: Uni- or bilateral(More)
BACKGROUND Aseptic trauma engages the innate immune response to trigger a neuroinflammatory reaction that results in postoperative cognitive decline. The authors sought to determine whether high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), an ubiquitous nucleosomal protein, initiates this process through activation and trafficking of circulating bone(More)
Oculomotor nerve palsy (ONP) is a common clinical manifestation of ruptured or unruptured posterior communicating artery (PcomA) aneurysms. Although microsurgical clip ligation has been proven a safe and durable treatment, endovascular management is emerging as an increasingly popular alternative. The aim of our study is to compare the recovery rate from(More)
In mammals, programmed cell death (PCD) is a central event during brain development. Trophic factors have been shown to prevent PCD in postmitotic neurons. Similarly, cytokines have neurotrophic effects involving regulation of neuronal survival. Nevertheless, neuronal PCD is only partially understood and host determinants are incompletely defined. The(More)
BACKGROUND According to rodent models of postoperative cognitive decline, activation of the innate immune response following aseptic surgical trauma results in the elaboration of hippocampal proinflammatory cytokines, which are capable of disrupting long-term potentiation, the neurobiologic correlate of memory. The authors hypothesize that hippocampal(More)