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A simple, analytical, nonrelativistic ionization rate formula for atoms and positive ions in intense ultraviolet and x-ray electromagnetic fields is derived. The rate is valid at arbitrary values of the Keldysh parameter and confirmed by results from ab initio numerical solutions of the single active electron, time-dependent Schrödinger equation. The(More)
Starting from the QCD Lagrangian and taking into account both perturbative and nonperturbative effects, we use the method of vacuum correlators to derive the Dirac equation (rigorously for the Coulomb interaction and heuristically for the confining potential) for a system consisting of a light quark and heavy antiquark. As a result the confining potential(More)
We propose a scalar background in Minkowski spacetime imparting constant proper acceleration to a classical particle. In contrast to the case of a constant electric field the proposed scalar potential does not create particle-antiparticle pairs. Therefore an elementary particle accelerated by such field is a more appropriate candidate for an(More)
The scheme of a simultaneous multiple pulse focusing on one spot naturally arises from the structural features of projected new laser systems, such as the Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI) and High Power laser Energy Research (HiPER). It is shown that the multiple pulse configuration is beneficial for observing e+ e- pair production from a vacuum under the(More)
Electron–positron pair production from vacuum in an electromagnetic field created by two counterpropagating focused laser pulses interacting with each other is analyzed. The dependence of the number of produced pairs on the intensity of a laser pulse and the focusing parameter is studied with a realistic three-dimensional model of the electromagnetic field(More)
With a special choice of gauge the operator of the Klein-Fock-Gordon equation in homogeneous electric field respects boost symmetry. Using this symmetry we obtain solutions for the scalar massive field equation in such a background (boost modes in the electric field). We calculate the spectrum of particles created by the electric field, as seen by an(More)
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