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BACKGROUND Severe malaria (SM) is classically associated with Plasmodium falciparum infection. Little information is available on the contribution of P. vivax to severe disease. There are some epidemiological indications that P. vivax or mixed infections protect against complications and deaths. A large morbidity surveillance conducted in an area where the(More)
BACKGROUND Presumptive treatment of all febrile patients with anti-malarials leads to massive over-treatment. The aim was to assess the effect of implementing malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs) on prescription of anti-malarials in urban Tanzania. METHODS The design was a prospective collection of routine statistics from ledger books and(More)
BACKGROUND TO THE DEBATE Current guidelines recommend that all fever episodes in African children be treated presumptively with antimalarial drugs. But declining malarial transmission in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, declining proportions of fevers due to malaria, and the availability of rapid diagnostic tests mean it may be time for this policy to change.(More)
BACKGROUND Malaria is almost invariably ranked as the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Africa. There is growing evidence of a decline in malaria transmission, morbidity and mortality over the last decades, especially so in East Africa. However, there is still doubt whether this decline is reflected in a reduction of the proportion of malaria(More)
BACKGROUND The availability of a rapid diagnostic test for malaria (RDTm) allows accurate diagnosis at all levels of health facilities. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the safety of withholding antimalarials in febrile children who have a negative test result. METHODS We conducted a prospective 2-arm longitudinal study in areas of(More)
BACKGROUND Laboratory capacity to confirm malaria cases in Tanzania is low and presumptive treatment of malaria is being practiced widely. In malaria endemic areas WHO now recommends systematic laboratory testing when suspecting malaria. Currently, the use of Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) is recommended for the diagnosis of malaria in lower level peripheral(More)
Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria may help rationalize antimalarial drug use. However, the economic effects of these tests may vary. Data on costs were collected from 259 patients in 6 health facilities by using exit and in-charge interviews and record reviews during a trial of RDT rollout in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The RDTs decreased patient(More)
Dear Editor, Over the past decade, next-generation sequencing (NGS) has become a useful tool to identify novel or emerging infectious agents. 1 Although NGS is not yet used as a routine diagnostic tool, it is increasingly used as a second line of investigation for select clinical cases, particularly when routine molecular and serological assays fail to(More)
BACKGROUND We assessed nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage of five pathogens in febrile children with and without acute respiratory infection (ARI) of the upper (URTI) or lower tract, attending health facilities in Tanzania. METHODS NP swabs collected from children (N = 960) aged 2 months to 10 years, and with a temperature ≥38°C, were utilized to quantify(More)
Following the paper publication of practice guidelines for the management of febrile patients returning from the tropics, we constructed a consultation website that comprises a decision chart and specific diagnostic features providing medical diagnostic assistance to primary care physicians. We then integrated a research component to evaluate the(More)
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