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BACKGROUND Severe malaria (SM) is classically associated with Plasmodium falciparum infection. Little information is available on the contribution of P. vivax to severe disease. There are some epidemiological indications that P. vivax or mixed infections protect against complications and deaths. A large morbidity surveillance conducted in an area where the(More)
BACKGROUND Presumptive treatment of all febrile patients with anti-malarials leads to massive over-treatment. The aim was to assess the effect of implementing malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs) on prescription of anti-malarials in urban Tanzania. METHODS The design was a prospective collection of routine statistics from ledger books and(More)
BACKGROUND As the incidence of malaria diminishes, a better understanding of nonmalarial fever is important for effective management of illness in children. In this study, we explored the spectrum of causes of fever in African children. METHODS We recruited children younger than 10 years of age with a temperature of 38°C or higher at two outpatient(More)
BACKGROUND TO THE DEBATE Current guidelines recommend that all fever episodes in African children be treated presumptively with antimalarial drugs. But declining malarial transmission in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, declining proportions of fevers due to malaria, and the availability of rapid diagnostic tests mean it may be time for this policy to change.(More)
BACKGROUND Malaria is almost invariably ranked as the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Africa. There is growing evidence of a decline in malaria transmission, morbidity and mortality over the last decades, especially so in East Africa. However, there is still doubt whether this decline is reflected in a reduction of the proportion of malaria(More)
BACKGROUND Laboratory capacity to confirm malaria cases in Tanzania is low and presumptive treatment of malaria is being practiced widely. In malaria endemic areas WHO now recommends systematic laboratory testing when suspecting malaria. Currently, the use of Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) is recommended for the diagnosis of malaria in lower level peripheral(More)
No evidence-based information exists to guide clinicians for giving presumptive treatment to returning travelers when malaria is strongly suspected on clinical grounds but laboratory confirmation is not immediately available or is negative. A prospective study was conducted in travelers or migrants who sought care for fever to identify clinical and(More)
BACKGROUND The availability of a rapid diagnostic test for malaria (RDTm) allows accurate diagnosis at all levels of health facilities. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the safety of withholding antimalarials in febrile children who have a negative test result. METHODS We conducted a prospective 2-arm longitudinal study in areas of(More)
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) exposure in unprotected adults may cause severe and serious symptoms, with risk of both morbidity and mortality increasing with age. As seroprevalence of HAV is low in industrialised countries, and an increasing number of people, with an increasing median age, travel from areas of low HAV endemicity to high endemicity, pre-travel(More)