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Tumors are similar to organs, with unique physiology giving rise to an unusual set of transport barriers to drug delivery. Cancer therapy is limited by nonuniform drug delivery via blood vessels, inhomogeneous drug transport into tumor interstitium from the vascular compartment, and hindered transport through tumor interstitium to the target cells. Four(More)
Current Food and Drug Administration-approved cancer nanotherapeutics, which passively accumulate around leaky regions of the tumor vasculature because of an enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect, have provided only modest survival benefits. This suboptimal outcome is likely due to physiological barriers that hinder delivery of the nanotherapeutics(More)
Cancer and stromal cells actively exert physical forces (solid stress) to compress tumour blood vessels, thus reducing vascular perfusion. Tumour interstitial matrix also contributes to solid stress, with hyaluronan implicated as the primary matrix molecule responsible for vessel compression because of its swelling behaviour. Here we show, unexpectedly,(More)
The presence of growth-induced solid stresses in tumors has been suspected for some time, but these stresses were largely estimated using mathematical models. Solid stresses can deform the surrounding tissues and compress intratumoral lymphatic and blood vessels. Compression of lymphatic vessels elevates interstitial fluid pressure, whereas compression of(More)
The blood vessels of cancerous tumours are leaky and poorly organized. This can increase the interstitial fluid pressure inside tumours and reduce blood supply to them, which impairs drug delivery. Anti-angiogenic therapies--which 'normalize' the abnormal blood vessels in tumours by making them less leaky--have been shown to improve the delivery and(More)
The dense collagen network in tumors significantly reduces the penetration and efficacy of nanotherapeutics. We tested whether losartan--a clinically approved angiotensin II receptor antagonist with noted antifibrotic activity--can enhance the penetration and efficacy of nanomedicine. We found that losartan inhibited collagen I production by(More)
High particle uniformity, high photoluminescence quantum yields, narrow and symmetric emission spectral lineshapes and minimal single-dot emission intermittency (known as blinking) have been recognized as universal requirements for the successful use of colloidal quantum dots in nearly all optical applications. However, synthesizing samples that(More)
This work is motivated by the goal of providing a non-contact means of controlling the mouse pointer on a computer system for people with motor difficulties using low-cost, widely available hardware. The required information is derived from video data captured using a web camera mounted below the computer’s monitor. A colour filter is used to identify skin(More)