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Amphiphiles respond both to polar and to nonpolar solvents. In this paper X-ray diffraction and osmotic stress have been used to examine the phase behavior, the structural dimensions, and the work of deforming the monolayer-lined aqueous cavities formed by mixtures of dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) and dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) as a(More)
Rather than acting by modifying van der Waals or electrostatic double layer interactions or by directly bridging neighboring molecules, polyvalent ligands bound to DNA double helices appear to act by reconfiguring the water between macromolecular surfaces to create attractive long range hydration forces. We have reached this conclusion by directly measuring(More)
There has been much confusion recently about the relative merits of different approaches, osmotic stress, preferential interaction, and crowding, to describe the indirect effect of solutes on macromolecular conformations and reactions. To strengthen all interpretations of measurements and to forestall further unnecessary conceptual or linguistic confusion,(More)
We have compared hydration forces, electrical dipole potentials, and structural parameters of dispersions of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and dihexadecylphosphatidylcholine (DHPC) to evaluate the influence of fatty acid carbonyl groups on phospholipid bilayers. NMR and x-ray investigations performed over a wide range of water concentrations in the(More)
With few exceptions, membrane lipids are usually regarded as a kind of filler or passive solvent for membrane proteins. Yet, cells exquisitely control membrane composition. Many phospholipids found in plasma membrane bilayers favor packing into inverted hexagonal bulk phases. It was suggested that the strain of forcing such lipids into a bilayer may affect(More)
Osmotic stress can be used to estimate the internal volume change during the opening and closing of a voltage gated ionic channel. Mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channels, from rat liver and from Neurospora, reconstituted into planar lipid bilayers show a change of 2 to 4 X 10(4) A3 in internal volume, a large change inconsistent with a blocking or(More)
We have measured the repulsive force between B-form double helices in parallel packed arrays of polymer-condensed DNA in the presence of 0.005-1.0 M ionic solutions. Molecular repulsion is consistently exponential with a 2.5-3.5 A decay distance, when the separation between DNA surfaces is 5-15 A. Only weakly dependent on ionic strength and independent of(More)
We have obtained force vs. separation relations between bilayers in 10 different phospholipid preparations: dilauroyl-dimyristoyl-, dipalmitoyl-, distearoyl-, or dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (PC); egg phosphatidylethanolamine; cholesterol-containing bilayers of dipalmitoyl PC and of egg PC. The chemical potential of water in the multilamellar lattice is(More)
The assembly of double stranded DNA helices with divalent manganese ion is favored by increasing temperature. Direct force measurements, obtained from the osmotic stress technique coupled with x-ray diffraction, show that the force characteristics of spontaneously precipitated Mn(2+)-DNA closely resemble those observed previously by us for other counterion(More)
Contrary to expectations based on heightened solution viscosity, alamethicin channels appear to speed up in the presence of water soluble polyethylene glycols (PEGs) and dextrans. Specifically, added polymers reduce the probabilities of transition to higher-conductance states but do not change channel lifetimes. They thereby shorten the duration of current(More)