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Osmotic stress can be used to estimate the internal volume change during the opening and closing of a voltage gated ionic channel. Mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channels, from rat liver and from Neurospora, reconstituted into planar lipid bilayers show a change of 2 to 4 X 10(4) A3 in internal volume, a large change inconsistent with a blocking or(More)
The change in conductance of a small electrolyte-filled capillary owing to the passage of sub-micrometre-sized particles has long been used for particle counting and sizing. A commercial device for such measurements, the Coulter counter, is able to detect particles of sizes down to several tenths of a micrometre. Nuclepore technology (in which pores are(More)
The oxygen affinity of hemoglobin varies linearly with the chemical potential of water in the bathing medium, as seen from the osmotic effect of several neutral solutes, namely sucrose, stachyose, and two polyethyleneglycols (molecular weights of 150 and 400). The data, analyzed either by Wyman linkage equations or by Gibbs-Duhem relations, show that(More)
We have applied solutions with varying osmotic pressures symmetrically to the inside and outside of perfused, TTX-treated, giant axons. The potassium conductance G decreased with increasing osmotic stress, but there was no effect on either the shape or the position of the voltage-current curve. One must distinguish three possible actions of the osmotic(More)
The monomeric VDAC channel shows an accelerated pH titration of its transport properties with a Hill coefficient of about 2. This manifests itself as a sharp peak in conductance noise as well as a fast change in channel selectivity with pH. On the basis of the known structure of this channel, we propose that this cooperativity arises from a mechanically(More)
By equilibrating condensed DNA arrays against reservoirs of known osmotic stress and examining them with several structural probes, it has been possible to achieve a detailed thermodynamic and structural characterization of the change between two distinct regions on the liquid-crystalline phase diagram: (i) a higher density hexagonally packed region with(More)
The first part of this paper develops a theory for the free energy of lyotropic polymer nematic liquid crystals. We use a continuum model with macroscopic elastic moduli for a polymer nematic phase. By evaluating the partition function , considering only harmonic fluctuations, we derive an expression for the free energy of the system. We find that the(More)
Working at the macroscopic continuum level, we investigate effective van der Waals interactions between two layers within a multilayer assembly. By comparing the pair interactions between two layers with effective pair interactions within an assembly we assess the significant consequences of nonadditivity of van der Waals interactions. This allows us to(More)