Víctor Sánchez-Merino

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Several recent studies have identified HIV-infected patients able to produce a broad neutralizing response, and the detailed analyses of their sera have provided valuable information to improve future vaccine design. All these studies have excluded patients on antiretroviral treatment and with undetectable viral loads, who have an improved B cell profile(More)
In most human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals who achieve viral loads of <50 copies/ml during highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), low levels of plasma virus remain detectable for years by ultrasensitive methods. The relative contributions of ongoing virus replication and virus production from HIV-1 reservoirs to(More)
The efficacy of the CTL component of a future HIV-1 vaccine will depend on the induction of responses with the most potent antiviral activity and broad HLA class I restriction. However, current HIV vaccine designs are largely based on viral sequence alignments only, not incorporating experimental data on T cell function and specificity. Here, 950 untreated(More)
BACKGROUND Programmed Death-1 (PD-1) is an inhibitory member of the CD28 family of molecules expressed on CD8+ T cells in response to antigenic stimulation. To better understand the role of PD-1 in antiviral immunity we examined the expression of PD-1 on Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) epitope-specific CD8+ T cells during acute infectious mononucleosis (AIM) and(More)
The Gag-Pol polyprotein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is not required for efficient viral particle production. However, premature termination codons in pol, particularly in the integrase (IN)-coding region, can markedly impair HIV-1 particle formation, apparently due to the premature activation of the viral protease (PR). We now report that(More)
Resistance of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) to antiretroviral agents results from target gene mutation within the pol gene, which encodes the viral protease, reverse transcriptase (RT), and integrase. We speculated that mutations in genes other that the drug target could lead to drug resistance. For this purpose, the p1-p6(gag)-p6(pol) region(More)
To help in the vaccine development, WHO-UNAIDS launched a program for the isolation and characterization of subtype C viruses, the most prevalent HIV-1 subtype in the world. Isolates were obtained from Brazil, China, India, Israel, and South Africa, countries in which these strains are circulating. In this study we genetically characterized a set of samples(More)
Nonconservative substitutions for Tyr-115 in the reverse transcriptase (RT) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) lead to enzymes displaying lower affinity for deoxynucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) (A. M. Martín-Hernández, E. Domingo, and L. Menéndez-Arias, EMBO J. 15:4434-4442, 1996). Several mutations at this position (Y115W, Y115L, Y115A, and(More)
In this study, amino acid sequence variation in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 Gag CD8(+) T cell epitopes was examined in untreated mother-infant pairs. Several HIV-1 CD8(+) T cell escape variants were identified within maternal plasma viral p17 and p24 sequences that were either not detected or did not persist in the plasma of their non-HLA-matched(More)
CD8+ T lymphocyte responses play an important role in controlling HIV-1 replication but escape from CD8+ T cell surveillance may limit the effectiveness of these responses. Mother-to-child transmission of CD8+ T cell escape variants may particularly affect CD8+ T cell recognition of infant HIV-1 epitopes. In this study, amino acid sequence variation in(More)