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The structure of mutualistic networks provides clues to processes shaping biodiversity [1-10]. Among them, interaction intimacy, the degree of biological association between partners, leads to differences in specialization patterns [4, 11] and might affect network organization [12]. Here, we investigated potential consequences of interaction intimacy for(More)
Mutualistic networks involving plants and their pollinators or frugivores have been shown recently to exhibit a particular asymmetrical organization of interactions among species called nestedness: a core of reciprocal generalists accompanied by specialist species that interact almost exclusively with generalists. This structure contrasts with(More)
We studied the effect of four ant species on the reproductive fitness (number of fruits produced) of Schomburgkia tibicinis (Orchidaceae), in the coast of Yucatan, Mexico. Ants forage day and night for the nectar produced by the reproductive structures of the orchid. Ant size is: Camponotus planatus (3–4 mm), C. abdominalis (4–6 mm), C. rectangularis (7–9(More)
The boreotropical flora concept suggests that relictual tropical disjunctions between Asia and the Americas are a result of the expansion of the circumboreal tropical flora from the middle to the close of the Eocene. Subsequently, temperate species diverged at high latitudes and migrated to other continents. To test this concept, we conducted a molecular(More)
Several studies on herbivory have shown that plants may have different responses to foliar damage. Most studies have been done using hermaphroditic species, here we present, using a defoliation experiment, different types of response to foliar damage by the monoecious Cnidosculus acontifolius. We evaluated four treatments: natural herbivory (control), and(More)
Despite recognition of key biotic processes in shaping the structure of biological communities, few empirical studies have explored the influences of abiotic factors on the structural properties of mutualistic networks. We tested whether temperature and precipitation contribute to temporal variation in the nestedness of mutualistic ant–plant networks. While(More)
Despite the importance and increasing knowledge of ecological networks, sampling effort and intrapopulation variation has been widely overlooked. Using continuous daily sampling of ants visiting three plant species in the Brazilian Neotropical savanna, we evaluated for the first time the topological structure over 24 h and species-area relationships (based(More)
We studied species composition, similarity, and structure of homegardens in two Yucatecan Maya communities, Tixpeual and Tixcacaltuyub, Yucatan, Mexico. The number of gardens sampled per village was 20 and 22; total area sampled was very similar, 45,265 m2 and 40,150 m2; the number of trees and shrubs present was 5651 and 5603; and number of species was 135(More)
All mutualistic plant–animal interactions are mediated by costs and benefits in relationships where resources (from plants) are exchanged by services (from animals). The most common trading coin that plants offer to pay for animal services is nectar; the main servers are hymenopterans. Extrafloral nectar (EFN) is produced in almost all aboveground plant(More)
We studied the distribution and abundance of three epiphytic Bromeliaceae (Tillandsia dasyliriifolia, T. califanii, and T. recurvata), in two different vegetation associations (‘izotal’, ‘cardonal’) in the Zapotitlán Valley, Puebla, México. We quantified all bromeliads considering their size (height and basal diameter), as well as their spatial orientation(More)