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The structure of mutualistic networks provides clues to processes shaping biodiversity [1-10]. Among them, interaction intimacy, the degree of biological association between partners, leads to differences in specialization patterns [4, 11] and might affect network organization [12]. Here, we investigated potential consequences of interaction intimacy for(More)
Despite recognition of key biotic processes in shaping the structure of biological communities, few empirical studies have explored the influences of abiotic factors on the structural properties of mutualistic networks. We tested whether temperature and precipitation contribute to temporal variation in the nestedness of mutualistic ant–plant networks. While(More)
Despite the importance and increasing knowledge of ecological networks, sampling effort and intrapopulation variation has been widely overlooked. Using continuous daily sampling of ants visiting three plant species in the Brazilian Neotropical savanna, we evaluated for the first time the topological structure over 24 h and species-area relationships (based(More)
All mutualistic plant–animal interactions are mediated by costs and benefits in relationships where resources (from plants) are exchanged by services (from animals). The most common trading coin that plants offer to pay for animal services is nectar; the main servers are hymenopterans. Extrafloral nectar (EFN) is produced in almost all aboveground plant(More)
Mutualistic networks involving plants and their pollinators or frugivores have been shown recently to exhibit a particular asymmetrical organization of interactions among species called nestedness: a core of reciprocal generalists accompanied by specialist species that interact almost exclusively with generalists. This structure contrasts with(More)
We analyzed the structure of a multispecific network of interacting ants and plants bearing extrafloral nectaries recorded in 1990 and again in 2000 in La Mancha, Veracruz, Mexico. We assessed the replicability of the number of interactions found among species and also whether there had been changes in the network structure associated with appearance of new(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Morphological descriptions of the extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) of certain plant species are common in the literature, but they rarely relate morphology with histology, gland distribution and secretory attributes. In this study a morphological/secretory characterization of EFNs occurring on several plant species in a tropical coastal(More)
In natural environments, distinct species interact with differing level of specialization, and thereby generate complex interaction networks. Recent studies have shown that certain antagonistic and mutualistic networks have a highly modular structure. This indicates that within an ecological network, densely connected semi-independent compartments occur and(More)
Saproxylic insect communities inhabiting tree hollow microhabitats correspond with large food webs which simultaneously are constituted by multiple types of plant-animal and animal-animal interactions, according to the use of trophic resources (wood- and insect-dependent sub-networks), or to trophic habits or interaction types (xylophagous, saprophagous,(More)
Caterpillar shelters provide protection against desiccation and natural enemies, whereas extra-floral nectaries (EFNs) may be an anti-herbivore adaptation that reduces herbivore abundance by attracting predators and parasites. We used a large, long-term dataset for caterpillars found in the Brazilian cerrado to examine temporal variations in the relative(More)