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Bacillus subtilis is the best-characterized member of the Gram-positive bacteria. Its genome of 4,214,810 base pairs comprises 4,100 protein-coding genes. Of these protein-coding genes, 53% are represented once, while a quarter of the genome corresponds to several gene families that have been greatly expanded by gene duplication, the largest family(More)
BACKGROUND The extracellular promastigote and the intracellular amastigote stages alternate in the digenetic life cycle of the trypanosomatid parasite Leishmania. Amastigotes develop inside parasitophorous vacuoles of mammalian phagocytes, where they tolerate extreme environmental conditions. Temperature increase and pH decrease are crucial factors in the(More)
BACKGROUND Extreme acidic environments are characterized by their high metal content and lack of nutrients (oligotrophy). Macroscopic biofilms and filaments usually grow on the water-air interface or under the stream attached to solid substrates (streamers). In the Río Tinto (Spain), brown filaments develop under the water stream where the Gram-negative(More)
The bioleaching of metal sulfide has developed into a very important industrial process and understanding the microbial dynamic is key to advancing commercial bioleaching operations. Here we report the first quantitative description of the dynamic of active communities in an industrial bioleaching heap. Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was the most abundant(More)
Four adjacent genes (sipW, sipX, sipY and sipZ) encoding different type I signal peptidases, were isolated on a 7860 bp DNA fragment from Streptomyces lividans TK21. Three of the sip genes constitute an operon and the fourth is the first gene of another operon encompassing three additional, unrelated genes. A DNA fragment containing the four sip genes(More)
Project Overview. The Planetary Lake Lander project (PLL) is deploying and remotely operating a lake lander to gain operational experience that will help us better understand the technology and payload necessary , possible system constraints, and to develop solutions to overcome design issues for future lake lander missions. PLL's scientific mission in(More)
Bacillus subtilis is the best-characterized member of the Gram-positive bacteria. Its genome of 4,214,810 base pairs comprises 4,100 protein-coding genes. Of these protein-coding genes, 53% are represented once, while a quarter of the genome corresponds to several gene families that have been greatly expanded by gene duplication, the largest family(More)
Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease caused by Leishmania infantum in the Mediterranean Basin, where domestic dogs and wild canids are the main reservoirs. The promastigote stage replicates and develops within the gut of blood-sucking phlebotomine sand flies. Mature promastigotes are injected in the dermis of the mammalian host and(More)
Self-assembly and self-organisation of molecules are the main strategies used in nature to permit life to emerge from its building blocks, and have inspired new trends in nanotechnology based on a bottom-up approach. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of alkanethiols have been widely studied due to their relevant technological properties. Based on such(More)
Although phosphate and carbonate are important constituents in ancient and modern environments, it is not yet clear their biogeochemical relationships and their mechanisms of formation. Microbially mediated carbonate formation has been widely studied whereas little is known about the formation of phosphate minerals. Here we report that a new bacterial(More)