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Due to its NP-hard nature, it is still difficult to find an optimal solution for instances of the binary knapsack problem as small as 100 variables. In this paper, we developed a three-level hyper-heuristic framework to generate algorithms for the problem. From elementary components and multiple sets of problem instances, algorithms are generated. The best(More)
Given a multipartite graph G the generalized minimum spanning tree problem is to find a tree of minimal cost that includes a vertex from each part. This paper proposes several versions of the GRASP metaheu-ristic for the problem. The GRASP approach is based on constructive heuristics as well as on additional improvement mechanisms such as path-relinking and(More)
Humans need to solve computationally intractable problems such as visual search, categorization, and simultaneous learning and acting, yet an increasing body of evidence suggests that their solutions to instantiations of these problems are near optimal. Computational complexity advances an explanation to this apparent paradox: (1) only a small portion of(More)
Delivery of efficient service through a web site makes it compulsory in the redesigning stage to take into account the behavior of the users, which can be studied by means of a web log file that partially records information about user visits. The reconstruction of all of the sequences of pages that are visited by users who browse a web site is known as the(More)