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Recent reports of increased tolerance to artemisinin derivatives--the most recently adopted class of antimalarials--have prompted a need for new treatments. The spirotetrahydro-beta-carbolines, or spiroindolones, are potent drugs that kill the blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax clinical isolates at low nanomolar concentration.(More)
Tuberculosis (TB) treatment is hampered by the long duration of antibiotic therapy required to achieve cure. This indolent response has been partly attributed to the ability of subpopulations of less metabolically active Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) to withstand killing by current anti-TB drugs. We have used immune modulation with a phosphodiesterase-4(More)
Bacteria that cause disease rely on their ability to counteract and overcome host defenses. Here, we present a genome-scale study of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) that uncovers the bacterial determinants of surviving host immunity, sets of genes we term "counteractomes." Through this analysis, we found that CD4 T cells attempt to contain Mtb growth by(More)
The initiation of sporulation in Bacillus subtilis results primarily from phosphoryl group input into the phosphorelay by histidine kinases, the major kinase being kinase A. Kinase A is active as a homodimer, the protomer of which consists of an approximately 400-amino-acid N-terminal putative signal-sensing region and a 200-amino-acid C-terminal(More)
Granulomas are the pathological hallmark of tuberculosis (TB). However, their function and mechanisms of formation remain poorly understood. To understand the role of granulomas in TB, we analyzed the proteomes of granulomas from subjects with tuberculosis in an unbiased manner. Using laser-capture microdissection, mass spectrometry and confocal microscopy,(More)
Candidate antibacterials are usually identified on the basis of their in vitro activity. However, the apparent inhibitory activity of new leads can be misleading because most culture media do not reproduce an environment relevant to infection in vivo. In this study, while screening for novel anti-tuberculars, we uncovered how carbon metabolism can affect(More)
Cyclic peptides with an even number of alternating d,l-alpha-amino acid residues are known to self-assemble into organic nanotubes. Such peptides previously have been shown to be stable upon protease treatment, membrane active, and bactericidal and to exert antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and other gram-positive bacteria. The present(More)
Finding new treatment-shortening antibiotics to improve cure rates and curb the alarming emergence of drug resistance is the major objective of tuberculosis (TB) drug development. Using a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry imaging suite in a biosafety containment facility, we show that the key sterilizing drugs rifampicin(More)
Tuberculosis (TB) lesions are extremely complex and dynamic. Here, we review the multiple types and fates of pulmonary lesions that form following infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the impact of this spatial and temporal heterogeneity on the bacteria they harbor. The diverse immunopathology of granulomas and cavities generates a plethora of(More)
As a soil bacterium also found in estuarine and marine habitats, Bacillus subtilis has evolved various sensing and adaptation systems in order to face salt stress conditions. Among these regulatory mechanisms is the DegS-DegU signal transduction system, which was previously shown to be stimulated by high salt concentrations. A search for promoters regulated(More)