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Trypanosoma brucei is a parasitic protist responsible for sleeping sickness in humans. The procyclic form of this parasite, transmitted by tsetse flies, is considered to be dependent on oxidative phosphorylation for ATP production. Indeed, its respiration was 55% inhibited by oligomycin, which is the most specific inhibitor of the mitochondrial F0/F1-ATP(More)
Competition between glucose and lactate as oxidative energy substrates was investigated in both primary cultures of astrocytes and neurons using physiological concentrations (1.1 mm for each). Glucose metabolism was distinguished from lactate metabolism by using alternatively labelled substrates in the medium ([1-13C]glucose + lactate or glucose +(More)
Using "click chemistry" as an easy and versatile synthetic strategy to combine hyaluronan and polyglutamate blocks, we have prepared nanovesicles (polymersomes) that present a controlled size, excellent colloidal stability, and a high loading capacity for hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs. The unique feature of our concept is the use of hyaluronan, a(More)
A novel two-step protocol for intracellular drug delivery has been evaluated in vitro. As a first step TO-PRO-3 (a cell-impermeable dye that displays a strong fluorescence enhancement upon binding to nucleic acids) encapsulated in thermosensitive liposomes was released after heating to 42°C. A second step consisted of ultrasound-mediated local(More)
Microglia are phagocytic cells that are chemoattracted by brain tumors and can represent up to 70% of the tumor cell population. To get insight into gene therapy against glioma, we decided to take advantage of those microglia properties and to use those cells as vehicles to transport simultaneously a suicide gene (under the control of a heat-sensitive(More)
BACKGROUND Among the techniques used to induce and control gene expression, a non-invasive, physical approach based on local heat in combination with a heat-sensitive promoter represents a promising alternative but requires accurate temperature control in vivo. MRI-guided focused ultrasound (MRI-FUS) with real-time feedback control allows automatic(More)
Theranostics combines therapeutic and diagnostic or drug deposition monitoring abilities of suitable molecules. Here we describe the first steps of building an alkoxyamine-based theranostic agent against cancer. The labile alkoxyamine ALK-1 (t(1/2) = 50 min at 37 °C) cleaves spontaneously to generate (1) a highly reactive free alkyl radical used as(More)
Glucose is the major energetic substrate for the brain but evidence has accumulated during the last 20 years that lactate produced by astrocytes could be an additional substrate for neurons. However, little information exists about this lactate shuttle in vivo in activated and awake animals. We designed an experiment in which the cortical barrel field(More)
A knowledge of the spatial localization of cell vehicles used in gene therapy against glioma is necessary before launching therapy. For this purpose, MRI cell tracking is performed by labeling the cell vehicles with contrast agents. In this context, the goal of this study was to follow noninvasively the chemoattraction of therapeutic microglial cells to a(More)
Microglia are immune cells within the central nervous system. In brain-developing tumors, gliomas are able to silence the defense and immune functions of microglia, a phenomenon which strongly contributes to tumor progression and treatment resistance. Being activated and highly motile, microglia infiltrate tumors and secrete macrophagic chemoattractant(More)