Véronique Bouchaud

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Competition between glucose and lactate as oxidative energy substrates was investigated in both primary cultures of astrocytes and neurons using physiological concentrations (1.1 mm for each). Glucose metabolism was distinguished from lactate metabolism by using alternatively labelled substrates in the medium ([1-13C]glucose + lactate or glucose +(More)
Trypanosoma brucei is a parasitic protist responsible for sleeping sickness in humans. The procyclic form of this parasite, transmitted by tsetse flies, is considered to be dependent on oxidative phosphorylation for ATP production. Indeed, its respiration was 55% inhibited by oligomycin, which is the most specific inhibitor of the mitochondrial F0/F1-ATP(More)
Microglia are immune cells within the central nervous system. In brain-developing tumors, gliomas are able to silence the defense and immune functions of microglia, a phenomenon which strongly contributes to tumor progression and treatment resistance. Being activated and highly motile, microglia infiltrate tumors and secrete macrophagic chemoattractant(More)
Using "click chemistry" as an easy and versatile synthetic strategy to combine hyaluronan and polyglutamate blocks, we have prepared nanovesicles (polymersomes) that present a controlled size, excellent colloidal stability, and a high loading capacity for hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs. The unique feature of our concept is the use of hyaluronan, a(More)
Glucose is the major energetic substrate for the brain but evidence has accumulated during the last 20 years that lactate produced by astrocytes could be an additional substrate for neurons. However, little information exists about this lactate shuttle in vivo in activated and awake animals. We designed an experiment in which the cortical barrel field(More)
The improvement of commonly used Gd3+ -based MRI agents requires the design of new systems with optimized in vivo efficacy, pharmacokinetic properties, and specificity. To design these contrast agents, two parameters are usually considered: increasing the number of coordinated water molecules or increasing the rotational correlation time by increasing(More)
The energy metabolism of rat C6 glioma cells was investigated as a function of the growth phases. Three-dimensional cultures of C6 cells exhibited diminished respiration and respiratory capacity during the early growth phase, before reaching confluence. This decrease in respiration was neither due to changes in the respiratory complex content nor in the(More)
Microglia are phagocytic cells that are chemoattracted by brain tumors and can represent up to 70% of the tumor cell population. To get insight into gene therapy against glioma, we decided to take advantage of those microglia properties and to use those cells as vehicles to transport simultaneously a suicide gene (under the control of a heat-sensitive(More)
Therapies involving cells as vehicles need to visualize in situ the trafficking of the cells concerned. This cellular imaging can be driven by cell contrast agent-based nanoparticle internalization and non-invasive MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) detection. Here, microglial cells, that would transport a suicide gene to a glioma, were incubated for(More)
A novel two-step protocol for intracellular drug delivery has been evaluated in vitro. As a first step TO-PRO-3 (a cell-impermeable dye that displays a strong fluorescence enhancement upon binding to nucleic acids) encapsulated in thermosensitive liposomes was released after heating to 42°C. A second step consisted of ultrasound-mediated local(More)