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Competition between glucose and lactate as oxidative energy substrates was investigated in both primary cultures of astrocytes and neurons using physiological concentrations (1.1 mm for each). Glucose metabolism was distinguished from lactate metabolism by using alternatively labelled substrates in the medium ([1-13C]glucose + lactate or glucose +(More)
Glucose is the major energetic substrate for the brain but evidence has accumulated during the last 20 years that lactate produced by astrocytes could be an additional substrate for neurons. However, little information exists about this lactate shuttle in vivo in activated and awake animals. We designed an experiment in which the cortical barrel field(More)
Microglia are immune cells within the central nervous system. In brain-developing tumors, gliomas are able to silence the defense and immune functions of microglia, a phenomenon which strongly contributes to tumor progression and treatment resistance. Being activated and highly motile, microglia infiltrate tumors and secrete macrophagic chemoattractant(More)
Cellular density is a parameter measured for glioma grade and invasiveness diagnosis. The characterization of the cellular density can be performed, non invasively, by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), since, this technique displays a good resolution. Nevertheless MRI sensitivity is critical. Development of smart contrast agents appears useful to increase(More)
Although several in vitro and ex vivo evidence support the existence of lactate exchange between astrocytes and neurons, a direct demonstration in vivo is still lacking. In the present study, a lentiviral vector carrying a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) was used to downregulate the expression of the monocarboxylate transporter type 2 (MCT2) in neurons of the rat(More)
In order to study metabolic processes in animal models of diseases and in patients, microdialysis probes have evolved as powerful tools that are minimally invasive. However, analyses of microdialysate, performed remotely, do not provide real-time monitoring of microdialysate composition. Microdialysate solutions can theoretically be analyzed online inside a(More)
BACKGROUND Magnetic resonance imaging can reveal exquisite anatomical details. However several diseases would benefit from an imaging technique able to specifically detect biochemical alterations. In this context protease activity imaging is one of the most promising areas of research. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We designed an elastase substrate by(More)
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