In human intestinal epithelial crypt (HIEC) cells, the PI3-K/Akt-1 pathway is crucial for the promotion of cell survival and suppression of anoikis. Class I PI3-K consists of a complex formed by a catalytic (C) and regulatory (R) subunit. Three R (p85α, β, and p55γ) and four C (p110α, β, γ and δ) isoforms are known. Herein, we analyzed the expression of… (More)
Regulation of anoikis in human intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) implicates differentiation state-specific mechanisms. Human IECs express distinct repertoires of integrins according to their state of differentiation. Therefore, we investigated whether α2β1, α3β1, α5β1, and α6β4 integrins perform differentiation state-specific roles in the suppression of… (More)
This paper illustrates how spin-offs can constitute powerful strategies for SMEs to diversify their portfolio ; find reliable suppliers and secure key human resources. However such capability relies on key managerial attitudes such as favoring individual initiatives, personal involvement and in depth knowledge of the entrepreneurial process.
Passive and semi-active aids ince 1985, a team of computer scien-surgeons has been involved in a project at Grenoble Hospital called computer assisted medical interventions (CAMI). The aim of the project is to help surgeons and physicians use multimodal data in a rational and quantitative way in order to plan and to perform medical interventions. Recent… (More)
This article attempts to extract and integrate the knowledge generated by practitioners engaged in Corporate Entrepreneurship experiments. Relying on fifteen case studies, it identifies and discusses the three key dimensions of their " theory-of-action " : autonomy, motivation and resource discipline. It argues for the inclusion of a fourth dimension –… (More)