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Mitoxantrone (MTX) is a chemotherapeutic agent that emerged as an alternative to anthracycline therapy. However, MTX also causes late cardiotoxicity, being oxidative stress and mitochondrial-impaired function proposed as possible mechanisms. This work aimed to investigate the relevance of these mechanisms to the MTX toxicity in H9c2 cells, using therapeutic(More)
P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ATP-dependent efflux pump encoded by the MDR1 gene in humans, known to mediate multidrug resistance of neoplastic cells to cancer therapy. For several decades, P-gp inhibition has drawn many significant research efforts in an attempt to overcome this phenomenon. However, P-gp is also constitutively expressed in normal human(More)
The neurotoxicity of “ecstasy” (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA) is thought to involve hepatic metabolism, though its real contribution is not completely understood. Most in vitro neurotoxicity studies concern isolated exposures of MDMA or its metabolites, at high concentrations, not considering their mixture, as expected in vivo. Therefore, our(More)
Renal failure resulting from cocaine abuse has been well documented, although the underlying mechanisms remain to be investigated. In the present study, primary cultured human proximal tubular epithelial cells (HPTECs) of the kidney were used to investigate its ability to metabolize cocaine, as well as the cytotoxicity induced by cocaine and its metabolites(More)
P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a 170 kDa transmembrane protein involved in the outward transport of many structurally unrelated substrates. P-gp activation/induction may function as an antidotal pathway to prevent the cytotoxicity of these substrates. In the present study we aimed at testing rifampicin (Rif) and three newly synthesized Rif derivatives (a(More)
P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an efflux pump belonging to the ATP-binding cassette transporter superfamily expressed in several organs. Considering its potential protective effects, the induction of de novo synthesis of P-gp could be used therapeutically in the treatment of intoxications by its substrates. The herbicide paraquat (PQ) is a P-gp substrate(More)
Iron oxide nanoparticles (ION), with different coatings and sizes, have attracted extensive interest in the last years to be applied in drug delivery, cancer therapy and as contrast agents in imagiologic techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging. However, the safety of these nanoparticles is still not completely established, particularly to host defense(More)
P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a transmembrane protein that mediates the efflux of innumerous structurally unrelated compounds. It was initially found over-expressed in tumor cells, associated to a multidrug resistance phenotype (MDR). Then, P-gp was found constitutively expressed in excretory cells/tissues and in circulating cells, such as lymphocytes.(More)
Paraquat (PQ) is an extremely toxic herbicide upon oral ingestion that lacks a specific antidote. In case of intoxication, treatment primarily relies on limiting its intestinal absorption. In this study, we elucidate the intestinal transport mechanisms of PQ uptake using Caco-2 cells as a model of the human intestinal epithelium. The cells were incubated(More)
Colchicine is a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate that induces its expression, thus increasing the risk for unexpected pharmacokinetic interactions with this drug. Because increased P-gp expression does not always correlate with increased activity of this efflux pump, we evaluated the changes in both P-gp expression and activity induced by colchicine using an(More)