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Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has a poor overall survival. Localized RCC remains a surgical disease. About 20%-30% patients who present with limited disease at the time of nephrectomy develop metastasis. The median time to relapse after nephrectomy is 15-18 months. The maximum numbers of relapses are within the first 3 years. In metastatic RCC,(More)
Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HOA) is characterized by clubbing of digits and, in more advanced stages, by periosteal new bone formation and synovial effusions. Secondary HOA typically occurs in the setting of intrathoracic malignancy, infections or lung metastases. We report a case with an atypical presentation of HOA. The prominent systemic signs,(More)
Argatroban is a direct thrombin inhibitor approved for the treatment of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) type II. Argatroban is predominantly metabolized in the liver. It is widely believed that no dosage adjustment is required in patients with renal insufficiency, making it a preferred agent in patients on renal replacement therapy (Reddy and(More)
BACKGROUND Pakistan is known to have large populations of female sex workers (FSWs) with considerable geographic heterogeneity in their characteristics. In this paper, we describe the social organisation and structural patterns of female sex work in different geographic regions of Pakistan. METHODS We report geographic and network mapping data collected(More)
Although many countries are now collecting useful, high-quality HIV surveillance data, more efforts are put into the collection of data than into ensuring it is deployed effectively. The Canada-Pakistan HIV/AIDS surveillance project has strengthened and expanded the existing national AIDS control programme surveillance system in Pakistan through a(More)
Mucositis occurs in over 90% of patients undergoing stem cell transplantation for hematological malignancies. It is associated with significant morbidity in the form of pain, dysphagia and decreased oral intake, as well as mortality. Palifermin is a recombinant keratinocyte growth factor that has been shown to be effective in decreasing the incidence,(More)
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