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Alzheimer's disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder characterised by typical pathological hallmarks such as amyloid deposition, neurofibrillary tangles and disturbances in the expression of various cell cycle proteins. A current pathogenetic hypothesis suggests that neurons, forced by external and internal factors, leave the differentiated G(0)(More)
A number of growth factors and cytokines, such as transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta1), is elevated in Alzheimer's disease (AD), giving rise to activated intracellular mitogenic signaling cascades. Activated mitogenic signaling involving the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and other protein kinases might alter the phosphorylation states(More)
Besides its role in Alzheimer's disease, the amyloid precursor protein (APP) is implicated in several physiological functions in neuronal tissue such as cell survival, neurite outgrowth, synaptic formation, and neuronal plasticity. The present study analyzed effects of human wild-type APP (hAPP) overexpression on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in transgenic(More)
Gliosis of retinal Müller glial cells may have both beneficial and detrimental effects on neurons. To investigate the role of purinergic signaling in ischemia-induced reactive gliosis, transient retinal ischemia was evoked by elevation of the intraocular pressure in wild-type (Wt) mice and in mice deficient in the glia-specific nucleotide receptor P2Y1(More)
Based on the tetracycline-regulated gene expression system, a double-transgenic mouse model for liver fibrosis was established in which the expression of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) can be regulated deliberately by addition or removal of doxycycline hydrochloride to the drinking water. TGF-beta1 plasma levels in induced double-transgenic(More)
UNLABELLED Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is important for transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)-induced liver fibrogenesis. Hepatic stellate cells have been recognized as its major cellular source in the liver. Here we demonstrate the induction of CTGF expression in hepatocytes of damaged livers and identify a molecular mechanism responsible(More)
The increased expression and/or abnormal processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) is associated with the formation of amyloid plaques and cerebrovascular amyloid deposits, which are one of the major morphological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Among the processes regulating APP metabolism, the proteolytic cleavage of APP into amyloidogenic(More)
The proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) has been shown to be modulated through specific muscarinic receptor activation in vitro in both transfected cell lines and native brain slices, whereas a demonstration of receptor-mediated control of APP processing under in vivo conditions is still lacking. To simulate alterations in muscarinic(More)
The extracellular deposition of amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) in brain parenchyma is one of the characteristic features of Alzheimer's disease and is suggested to induce reactive and degenerative changes in neuronal cell bodies, axons and dendritic processes. In particular, within and in close proximity to amyloid plaques, distinctive morphological(More)
Members of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β family govern a wide range of mechanisms in brain development and in the adult, in particular neuronal/glial differentiation and survival, but also cell cycle regulation and neural stem cell maintenance. This clearly created some discrepancies in the field with some studies favouring neuronal(More)