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In the central nervous system (CNS), neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) proteins function in neuronal migration, differentiation, and survival of oligodendrocytes. The NRG-1 gene codes for at least 15 different isoforms, which may be classified on the basis of their molecular structure. At least two different haplotypes of the NRG-1 gene may be associated with(More)
The CD26 antigen is identical with the cell surface ectopeptidase dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DP IV, EC The post proline cleaving substrate specificity makes DP IV relatively unique among other proteases. Numerous cytokines, chemokines and other bioactive peptides are potential substrates of DP IV, but knowledge about the real in vivo substrates is(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Atrial fibrillation induces ischaemic microcirculatory flow abnormalities in the ventricle, contributing to the risk for acute coronary syndromes. We evaluated the effect of dronedarone on ventricular perfusion during rapid atrial pacing (RAP). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Coronary and fractional flow reserve (CFR/FFR) were measured in the(More)
Mitochondria are affected by endogenous nitric oxide (NO). Besides effects of NO on mitochondrial enzymes and the stimulation of mitochondrial H2O2 production, a NO-dependent increase in mitochondrial biogenesis in several tissues has been reported. It is still obscure whether NO generated by one specific or different NO synthase (NOS) isoenzymes determine(More)
Transforming growth factors beta (TGF-beta) constitute a family of polypeptide growth factors that control cell growth, cell differentiation and migration, as well as the formation of the extracellular matrix. Recent analyses revealed the overexpression of TGF-beta1 in human gastric cancers and demonstrated increased cell proliferation in the stomach of(More)
Elevated concentrations of albumin in the urine, albuminuria, are a hallmark of diabetic kidney disease and are associated with an increased risk for end-stage renal disease and cardiovascular events. To gain insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying albuminuria, we conducted meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies and independent(More)
OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to determine whether atrial expression of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases Erk1/Erk2 and of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is altered in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). BACKGROUND Recent studies have demonstrated that atrial fibrosis can provide a pathophysiologic substrate for AF.(More)
BACKGROUND The endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is a well-established risk factor for oxidative stress, vascular dysfunction, and congestive heart failure. The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of rapid atrial pacing (RAP) on ADMA levels and eNOS expression. METHODS AND RESULTS ADMA(More)