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One-third of all estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast tumors treated with endocrine therapy fail to respond, and the remainder is likely to relapse in the future. Almost all data on endocrine resistance has been obtained in models of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). However, invasive lobular carcinomas (ILC) comprise up to 15% of newly diagnosed invasive(More)
Human X-box binding protein-1 (XBP1) is an alternatively spliced transcription factor that participates in the unfolded protein response (UPR), a stress-signaling pathway that allows cells to survive the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum lumen. We have previously demonstrated that XBP1 expression is increased in(More)
In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in studying the propagation of polarized light in biological cells and tissues. This paper presents a novel approach to cell or tissue imaging using a full Stokes imaging system with advanced polarization image analysis algorithms for improved diagnostics. The key component of the Stokes imaging system(More)
Invasive lobular breast cancer (ILC) is an understudied malignancy with distinct clinical, pathological, and molecular features that distinguish it from the more common invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). Mounting evidence suggests that estrogen receptor-alpha positive (ER+) ILC has a poor response to Tamoxifen (TAM), but the mechanistic drivers of this are(More)
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