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Microglial cells constitute the resident macrophage population of the CNS. Recent in vivo studies have shown that microglia carry out active tissue scanning, which challenges the traditional notion of 'resting' microglia in the normal brain. Transformation of microglia to reactive states in response to pathology has been known for decades as microglial(More)
We have generated transgenic mice in which astrocytes are labeled by the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of the human glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter. In all regions of the CNS, such as cortex, cerebellum, striatum, corpus callosum, hippocampus, retina, and spinal cord, EGFP-positive cells with morphological(More)
Microglial cells are the resident macrophages in the central nervous system. These cells of mesodermal/mesenchymal origin migrate into all regions of the central nervous system, disseminate through the brain parenchyma, and acquire a specific ramified morphological phenotype termed "resting microglia." Recent studies indicate that even in the normal brain,(More)
Microglia are crucially important myeloid cells in the CNS and constitute the first immunological barrier against pathogens and environmental insults. The factors controlling microglia recruitment from the blood remain elusive and the direct circulating microglia precursor has not yet been identified in vivo. Using a panel of bone marrow chimeric and(More)
The action of type I interferons in the central nervous system (CNS) during autoimmunity is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate elevated interferon beta concentrations in the CNS, but not blood, of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model for CNS autoimmunity. Furthermore, mice devoid of the broadly expressed type I IFN receptor(More)
Calcitonin generelated peptide (CGRP) is a neuropeptide discovered by a molecular approach over 10 years ago. More recently, islet amyloid polypeptide or amylin, and adrenomedullin were isolated from human insulinoma and pheochromocytoma respectively, and revealed between 25 and 50% sequence homology with CGRP. This review discusses findings on the(More)
Microglia are the resident immune cells of the CNS. Upon brain damage, these cells are rapidly activated and function as tissue macrophages. The first steps in this activation still remain unclear, but it is widely believed that substances released from damaged brain tissue trigger this process. In this article, we describe the effects of the blood(More)
Microglia-brain macrophages are immune-competent cells of the CNS and respond to pathologic events. Using bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a tool to activate cultured mouse microglia, we studied alterations in the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca 2+]i) and in the receptor-evoked generation of transient calcium signals. LPS treatment led to a(More)
Microglia, the standby cells for immune defense in the CNS, have a reputation for exacerbating the neural damage that occurs in neurodegenerative diseases. However, research over the past few years has established that microglia do not constitute a single, uniform cell population, but rather comprise a family of cells with diverse phenotypes--some that are(More)