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Microglial cells constitute the resident macrophage population of the CNS. Recent in vivo studies have shown that microglia carry out active tissue scanning, which challenges the traditional notion of 'resting' microglia in the normal brain. Transformation of microglia to reactive states in response to pathology has been known for decades as microglial(More)
Microglial cells are the resident macrophages in the central nervous system. These cells of mesodermal/mesenchymal origin migrate into all regions of the central nervous system, disseminate through the brain parenchyma, and acquire a specific ramified morphological phenotype termed "resting microglia." Recent studies indicate that even in the normal brain,(More)
Microglia are crucially important myeloid cells in the CNS and constitute the first immunological barrier against pathogens and environmental insults. The factors controlling microglia recruitment from the blood remain elusive and the direct circulating microglia precursor has not yet been identified in vivo. Using a panel of bone marrow chimeric and(More)
Microglia, the standby cells for immune defense in the CNS, have a reputation for exacerbating the neural damage that occurs in neurodegenerative diseases. However, research over the past few years has established that microglia do not constitute a single, uniform cell population, but rather comprise a family of cells with diverse phenotypes--some that are(More)
Locus ceruleus (LC)-supplied norepinephrine (NE) suppresses neuroinflammation in the brain. To elucidate the effect of LC degeneration and subsequent NE deficiency on Alzheimer's disease pathology, we evaluated NE effects on microglial key functions. NE stimulation of mouse microglia suppressed Abeta-induced cytokine and chemokine production and increased(More)
Microglia serve in the surveillance and maintenance, protection and restoration of the central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis. By their parenchymal location they differ from other CNS-associated myeloid cells, and by origin as well as functional characteristics they are also-at least in part-distinct from extraneural tissue macrophages. Nevertheless,(More)
Microglial cells are the pathologic sensors in the brain. ATP released from damaged cells is a candidate for signalling neural injury to microglia. Moreover, ATP is an extracellular messenger for propagating astrocyte activity in the form of Ca2+ waves. To test for the functional expression of purinoreceptors in microglial cells we employed the patch-clamp(More)
Microglia-brain macrophages are immune-competent cells of the CNS and respond to pathologic events. Using bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a tool to activate cultured mouse microglia, we studied alterations in the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca 2+]i) and in the receptor-evoked generation of transient calcium signals. LPS treatment led to a(More)
Neuroinflammation is required for tissue clearance and repair after infections or insults. To prevent excessive damage, it is crucial to limit the extent of neuroinflammation and thereby the activation of its principal effector cell, microglia. The two main major innate immune cell types in the CNS are astrocytes and microglia. Histone deacetylases (HDACs)(More)
Mutations in SOD1 cause hereditary variants of the fatal motor neuron disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Pathophysiology of the disease is non-cell-autonomous, with toxicity deriving also from glia. In particular, microglia contribute to disease progression. Methylene blue (MB) inhibits the effect of nitric oxide, which mediates microglial(More)