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IMPORTANCE OF THE FIELD Conventional metabolism studies in early stages of drug development include in vitro tests, often based on hepatic cells and cell extracts, as well as in vivo tests on the basis of animal models. Complementary to these existing techniques, the electrochemical study of oxidative metabolism reactions is gaining increasing attention.(More)
The plant-specific calcium binding protein CAS (calcium sensor) has been localized in chloroplast thylakoid membranes of vascular plants and green algae. To elucidate the function of CAS in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we generated and analyzed eight independent CAS knockdown C. reinhardtii lines (cas-kd). Upon transfer to high-light (HL) growth conditions,(More)
The prediction of drug metabolism is an important task in drug development. Besides well-established in vitro and in vivo methods using biological matrices, several biomimetic models have been developed. This review summarizes three different nonenzymatic strategies, including metalloporphyrins as surrogates of the active centre of cytochrome P450, Fenton's(More)
Triclocarban (3,4,4'-trichlorocarbanilide, TCC) is a widely used antibacterial agent in personal care products and is frequently detected as an environmental pollutant in waste waters and surface waters. In this study, we report novel reactive metabolites potentially formed during biotransformation of TCC. The oxidative metabolism of TCC has been predicted(More)
The detection of reactive metabolites using conventional in vivo and in vitro techniques is hampered because the intermediately formed reactive species are prone to covalent binding to cellular macromolecules. Therefore, the application of improved methods is required. The on-line coupling of an electrochemical reactor and horseradish peroxidase immobilized(More)
We synthesised and toxicologically characterised the arsenic metabolite thiodimethylarsinic acid (thio-DMA(V)). Successful synthesis of highly pure thio-DMA(V) was confirmed by state-of-the-art analytical techniques including (1)H-NMR, HPLC-FTMS, and HPLC-ICPMS. Toxicological characterization was carried out in comparison to arsenite and its well-known(More)
The metabolism of the selective estrogen receptor modulator toremifene was simulated in an on-line electrochemistry/enzyme reactor/liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry system. To simulate the oxidative phase I metabolism, toremifene was oxidized in an electrochemical (EC) flow-through cell at 1,500 mV vs. Pd/H2 to its phase I metabolites, some of which(More)
This review highlights recent advances in the application of electrospray ionisation and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry (MS) to study enzymatic reactions. Several assay schemes for different fields of application are presented. The employment of MS as a means of detection in pre-steady-state kinetic studies by rapid-mixing(More)
During the last 2 years, the knowledge on the metabolic pathway of tetrazepam, a muscle relaxant drug, was expanded by the fact that diazepam was identified as a degradation product of tetrazepam. The present study demonstrates that this metabolic conversion, recently discovered by in vivo studies, can also be predicted on the basis of a purely instrumental(More)