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We performed a cross-sectional, “bottom-up” observational study of resource use, costs, and quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) in Germany. Six centers participated in the study. Patients were asked to complete a questionnaire, and a total of 737 patients returned it (response rate 66%). The questionnaire provided information on all(More)
INTRODUCTION Evidence from a number of open-label, uncontrolled studies has suggested that rituximab may benefit patients with autoimmune diseases who are refractory to standard-of-care. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and clinical outcomes of rituximab in several standard-of-care-refractory autoimmune diseases (within rheumatology,(More)
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is still the most widely accepted animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Different types of EAE have been developed in order to investigate pathogenetic, clinical and therapeutic aspects of the heterogenic human disease. Generally, investigations in EAE are more suitable for the analysis of immunogenetic(More)
INTRODUCTION In 2001, a nationwide multiple sclerosis (MS) registry was initiated in Germany under the auspices of the German MS Society, (DMSG Bundesverband e.V.). The project aimed at collecting epidemiological data and information on health care provision for MS patients in Germany. METHODS After a 2-year pilot phase, the original entry mask was(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules acting as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. They are involved in many biological processes, and their dysregulation is implicated in various diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Interferon-beta (IFN-beta) is widely used as a first-line immunomodulatory treatment of MS patients.(More)
Evidence exists for a potential modulation of inflammasome activity by interferon beta. Here, we investigated the roles of inflammasomes [absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2); NLR family, CARD domain containing 4 (NLRC4); NLR family, pyrin domain containing 1 and 3 (NLRP1 and NLRP3)] and related cytokines (IL1B, IL10, IL18) in the response to interferon beta in(More)
Interferon-β is an established treatment for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) but its mechanisms of action are not well understood. Viral infections are a known trigger of MS relapses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key components of the innate immune system, which sense conserved structures of viruses and other pathogens. Effects of interferon-β on(More)
Cognitive dysfunctions are frequent symptoms in multiple sclerosis (MS). Up to 65% of MS patients suffer from cognitive dysfunctions. Especially memory, attention and executive functions are impaired. These problems strongly affect the patients' ability to work and their quality of life (QoL). A differentiating diagnostic effort is necessary to control(More)
Various types of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) reflect some of the pathogenetic, clinical, and therapeutic features of the different forms of multiple sclerosis (MS), thereby, providing some, albeit limited, insight into the molecular and cellular basis of the human disease. Specific questions of MS therapy including the search for new(More)