Uwe K. Zettl

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Interferon-β is an established treatment for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) but its mechanisms of action are not well understood. Viral infections are a known trigger of MS relapses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key components of the innate immune system, which sense conserved structures of viruses and other pathogens. Effects of interferon-β on(More)
Common complex polygenic diseases as autoimmune diseases have not been completely understood on a molecular level. While many genes are known to be involved in the pathways responsible for the phenotype, explicit causes for the susceptibility of the disease remain to be elucidated. The susceptibility to disease is thought to be the result of genetic(More)
Recent large-scale association studies have identified over 100 MS risk loci. One of these MS risk variants is single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs17066096, located ~14 kb downstream of IL22RA2. IL22RA2 represents a compelling MS candidate gene due to the role of IL-22 in autoimmunity; however, rs17066096 does not map into any known functional element.(More)
Recent studies on Multiple Sclerosis (MS) pathology mention the involvement of "tertiary B cell follicles" in MS pathogenesis. This inflammatory process, which occurs with interindividually great variance, might be a link between MS pathology and headaches. The aim of this study was to detect the prevalence of headaches and of subtypes of headaches(More)
BACKGROUND Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs429358 (ε4) and rs7412 (ε2), both invoking changes in the amino-acid sequence of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene, have previously been tested for association with multiple sclerosis (MS) risk. However, none of these studies was sufficiently powered to detect modest effect sizes at acceptable type-I error(More)
BACKGROUND Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease where many of the patients suffer from spasticity impacting their quality-of-life. The purpose of this paper was to linguistically validate and psychometrically test the Multiple Sclerosis Spasticity Scale (MSSS-88) in German speaking MS patients. METHODS The study had two stages: 1)(More)
At the present time, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, or immunosuppressive treatments of multiple sclerosis (MS) are mainly effective in the early phases of the disease but are of less advantage in progressive phases. Current therapeutic strategies of both primary and secondary progressive MS are rare. One alternative may be intrathecal application of(More)
Cognitive dysfunctions are frequent symptoms in multiple sclerosis (MS). Up to 65% of MS patients suffer from cognitive dysfunctions. Especially memory, attention and executive functions are impaired. These problems strongly affect the patients' ability to work and their quality of life (QoL). A differentiating diagnostic effort is necessary to control(More)
It was the aim of the present study to develop a synoptic multidimensional test system for assessment of fatigue in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients objectifying physical and mental fatigue as well as the subjective and objective standpoint in these two fatigue forms. Seventy nine patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and 51(More)
Cognitive dysfunctions are frequent symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) and occur in up to 65% of patients. Especially memory, attention, executive and visual constructive functions are impaired. These problems strongly affect patients' ability to work, social relationships, and quality of life. Symptoms of physical disabilities can arise independently.(More)