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INTRODUCTION Evidence from a number of open-label, uncontrolled studies has suggested that rituximab may benefit patients with autoimmune diseases who are refractory to standard-of-care. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and clinical outcomes of rituximab in several standard-of-care-refractory autoimmune diseases (within rheumatology,(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules acting as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. They are involved in many biological processes, and their dysregulation is implicated in various diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Interferon-beta (IFN-beta) is widely used as a first-line immunomodulatory treatment of MS patients.(More)
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is still the most widely accepted animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Different types of EAE have been developed in order to investigate pathogenetic, clinical and therapeutic aspects of the heterogenic human disease. Generally, investigations in EAE are more suitable for the analysis of immunogenetic(More)
Recent genome-wide association studies have implicated the “signal transducer and activator of transcription 3” gene (STAT3) as a putative new multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility locus. However, independent validation studies are sparse. Therefore, we performed a genetic association study of two STAT3 polymorphisms (rs744166 and rs2293152) in a large and(More)
Evidence exists for a potential modulation of inflammasome activity by interferon beta. Here, we investigated the roles of inflammasomes [absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2); NLR family, CARD domain containing 4 (NLRC4); NLR family, pyrin domain containing 1 and 3 (NLRP1 and NLRP3)] and related cytokines (IL1B, IL10, IL18) in the response to interferon beta in(More)
Interferon-β is an established treatment for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) but its mechanisms of action are not well understood. Viral infections are a known trigger of MS relapses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key components of the innate immune system, which sense conserved structures of viruses and other pathogens. Effects of interferon-β on(More)
INTRODUCTION In 2001, a nationwide multiple sclerosis (MS) registry was initiated in Germany under the auspices of the German MS Society, (DMSG Bundesverband e.V.). The project aimed at collecting epidemiological data and information on health care provision for MS patients in Germany. METHODS After a 2-year pilot phase, the original entry mask was(More)
It was the aim of the present study to develop a synoptic multidimensional test system for assessment of fatigue in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients objectifying physical and mental fatigue as well as the subjective and objective standpoint in these two fatigue forms. Seventy nine patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and 51(More)
The term neuroimmunology was first coined to refer to a generic involvement of the immune system in the pathogenesis of neurological diseases, particularly of the central nervous system. Since then, the neuroimmunology spectrum has steadily grown and currently spans from classical autoimmune diseases of the central and peripheral nervous systems to(More)