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Vocalization is a complex behaviour pattern, consisting of essentially three components: laryngeal activity, respiratory movements and supralaryngeal (articulatory) activity. The motoneurones controlling this behaviour are located in various nuclei in the pons (trigeminal motor nucleus), medulla (facial nucleus, nucl. ambiguus, hypoglossal nucleus) and(More)
The review describes a model of vocal control, based mainly on research in the squirrel monkey, which consists of two hierarchically organized pathways. One runs from the anterior cingulate cortex via the periaqueductal gray (PAG) into the reticular formation of pons and medulla oblongata, and from there to the phonatory motoneurons. This pathway controls(More)
The projections from the cortical vocal fold area were studied in five squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) with the aid of the autoradiographic tracing technique. The location of the cortical vocal fold area was determined by exploring the exposed frontal cortex with roving electrodes while examining the larynx for vocal fold adduction. The following(More)
The present study describes the cortical input into the motor cortical larynx area. The retrograde tracer horseradish peroxidase-conjugated wheat germ agglutinin was injected into the electrophysiologically identified motor cortical larynx area in three rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Retrogradely labeled cells were found in the surrounding premotor cortex(More)
In three rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), the inferior motor cortex was explored by electrical stimulation for sites yielding vocal fold adduction. The retrograde tracer wheat germ-agglutinin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase was injected into the effective sites. Within the forebrain, retrogradely labeled cells were found in the claustrum, basal nucleus of(More)
To find out whether there exist additional regions in the pontine brainstem, apart from the phonatory motoneuron pools involved in vocal motor control, the effects of a localized blockade of excitatory neurotransmission in the pons were studied on squirrel monkey vocalization. Vocalization was elicited by electrical stimulation of the periaqueductal gray of(More)
The efferent and afferent connections of the supplementary motor area (SMA) were studied in 6 squirrel monkeys using [3H]leucine and horseradish peroxidase, respectively. Efferent projections, common to all leucine-injected animals, were found to the cortical areas 9,8,44,4,2,5,7,24 and 23. Subcortically , efferents were found to the putamen, caudate(More)
The nonverbal vocal utterances of seven normally hearing infants were studied within their first year of life with respect to age- and emotion-related changes. Supported by a multiparametric acoustic analysis it was possible to distinguish one inspiratory and eleven expiratory call types. Most of the call types appeared within the first two months; some(More)
In order to better understand the descending voluntary vocal control pathway, the efferent subcortical projections of the laryngeal motorcortex were studied in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). For this purpose, the left motorcortex was exposed in three animals under narcosis. By electrical brain stimulation, sites were identified yielding vocal fold(More)