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The directional dependence of sound pressure transformation of head and pinna has been measured in the phyllostomid bat Phyllostomus discolor for the frontal hemisphere using a maximum length sequence method. The azimuthal position of the axis of highest pinna gain came closer to the midsagital plane with increasing frequency. The acoustic axis of highest(More)
Echolocating bats can identify three-dimensional objects exclusively through the analysis of acoustic echoes of their ultrasonic emissions. However, objects of the same structure can differ in size, and the auditory system must achieve a size-invariant, normalized object representation for reliable object recognition. This study describes both the(More)
Bats quickly navigate through a highly structured environment relying on echolocation. Large natural objects in the environment, like bushes or trees, produce complex stochastic echoes, which can be characterized by the echo roughness. Previous work has shown that bats can use echo roughness to classify the stochastic properties of natural objects. This(More)
Responses of neurons to apparent auditory motion in the azimuth were recorded in three different fields of auditory cortex of the rufous horseshoe bat. Motion was simulated using successive stimuli with dynamically changing interaural intensity differences presented via earphones. Seventy-one percent of sampled neurons were motion-direction-sensitive. Two(More)
Humans reliably recognize spoken vowels despite the variability of the sounds caused by the across-subject variability of the speakers' vocal tract. The vocal tract serves as a resonator which imprints a spectral envelope onto the sounds generated by the vocal folds. This spectral envelope contains not only information about the type of vocalization but(More)
This study examined the influence of inhibition on motion-direction-sensitive responses of neurons in the dorsal fields of auditory cortex of the rufous horseshoe bat. Responses to auditory apparent motion stimuli were recorded extracellularly from neurons while microiontophoretically applying gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the GABAA receptor antagonist(More)
Enkephalin (ENK) immunoreactivity was localised in different neuronal subpopulations of the myenteric plexus in the guinea-pig gastric fundus using immunohistochemistry for neurone-specific enolase (NSE), ENK, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), substance P (SP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), calretinin (CALRET), and somatostatin (SOM). NADPH-diaphorase staining was(More)
BACKGROUND The mammalian auditory cortex can be subdivided into various fields characterized by neurophysiological and neuroarchitectural properties and by connections with different nuclei of the thalamus. Besides the primary auditory cortex, echolocating bats have cortical fields for the processing of temporal and spectral features of the echolocation(More)
BACKGROUND Many bats vocalizing through their nose carry a prominent noseleaf that is involved in shaping the emission beam of these animals. To our knowledge, the exact role of these appendages has not been thoroughly investigated as for no single species both the hearing and the emission spatial sensitivities have been obtained. In this paper, we set out(More)
As opposed to visual imaging, biosonar imaging of spatial object properties represents a challenge for the auditory system because its sensory epithelium is not arranged along space axes. For echolocating bats, object width is encoded by the amplitude of its echo (echo intensity) but also by the naturally covarying spread of angles of incidence from which(More)