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The complement system as well as the coagulation system has fundamental clinical implications in the context of life-threatening tissue injury and inflammation. Associations between both cascades have been proposed, but the precise molecular mechanisms remain unknown. The current study reports multiple links for various factors of the coagulation and(More)
Systemic sepsis and multiple organ failure are frequent and often fatal complications after major surgery and trauma. In contrast to the biphasic hemodynamic pattern characteristically seen in patients, most experimental animal models have failed to reproduce the early, hyperdynamic phase of sepsis and endotoxemia. We have designed a standardized model of(More)
HYPOTHESIS Interleukin 6 (IL-6), a multifunctional cytokine, is expressed by various cells after many stimuli and underlies complex regulatory control mechanisms. Following major trauma, IL-6 release correlates with injury severity, complications, and mortality. The IL-6 response to injury is supposed to be uniquely consistent and related to injury(More)
The cause for the high morbidity of blunt chest trauma is not fully understood. It is still unclear if and to what extent a second insult, e.g., apoptotic tissue damage initiated by the primary insult itself, may contribute to the development of serious complications. This study was done to elucidate whether a pulmonary contusion may induce programmed cell(More)
The German Society of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (DGAI) commissioneda revision of the S2 guidelines on "positioning therapy for prophylaxis or therapy of pulmonary function disorders" from 2008. Because of the increasing clinical and scientificrelevance the guidelines were extended to include the issue of "early mobilization"and the(More)
The German Society of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (DGAI) commissioned a revision of the S2 guidelines on "positioning therapy for prophylaxis or therapy of pulmonary function disorders" from 2008. Because of the increasing clinical and scientific relevance the guidelines were extended to include the issue of "early mobilization" and the(More)
The order to revise the S2 guideline 'posi-tioning in prophylaxis or therapy of pulmonary disorders', which was established in 2008, was issued by the German Society for Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (DGAI). Due to increasing clinical and scientific relevance, the guideline was expanded to include the topic area 'early mobilisation'.(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are crucial pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) for activation of innate and adapted immunity. TLR2 heterodimerizes with TLR1 or TLR6 to recognize multiple pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) of fungi, Gram-positive pathogens, and mycobacteria. Receptor activation culminates in monocyte, T-helper (Th)1, and Th2(More)
The aim of this study was to compare and improve standard methods to determine nitrite (NO2-), nitrate (NO3-) and S-nitrosothiol (RSNO) levels in cell culture supernatants, sera, and urine. We modified the conventional Griess reaction by replacing sulfanilamide with dapsone (4,4'-diamino-diphenylsulfone) and compared the NO2- levels in our study samples(More)
The macro- and microcirculatory effect of small-volume resuscitation with hyperosmotic-hyperoncotic solutions was analyzed in 21 anesthetized beagles subjected to standardized traumatic-hemorrhagic hypotension (laparotomy and exteriorization of the intestine; MAP 40 mmHg for 75 min). Primary resuscitation consisted of bolus infusion of 10% of the blood loss(More)