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MOTIVATION Transcription factors (TFs) play a key role in gene regulation by binding to target sequences. In silico prediction of potential binding of a TF to a binding site is a well-studied problem in computational biology. The binding sites for one TF are represented by a position frequency matrix (PFM). The discovery of new PFMs requires the comparison(More)
Transcription factors play a key role in gene regulation by interacting with specific binding sites or motifs. Therefore, enrichment of binding motifs is important for genome annotation and efficient computation of the statistical significance, the p-value, of the enrichment of motifs is crucial. We propose an efficient approximation to compute the(More)
BACKGROUND The objective of this review was to assess the uptake of WHO recommended integrated perinatal prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV interventions in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS AND FINDINGS We searched 21 databases for observational studies presenting uptake of integrated PMTCT programs in low- and(More)
BACKGROUND The UK introduced an ambitious national strategy to reduce population levels of salt intake in 2003. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of this strategy on salt intake in England, including potential effects on health inequalities. METHODS Secondary analysis of data from the Health Survey for England. Our main outcome measure was(More)
BACKGROUND Cell functions depend on molecules organized in the cellular society. Two basic components are mRNA molecules and proteins. The interactions within and between those two components are crucial for carrying out sophisticated cell functions. The interplay can be analyzed by comparing expression levels of mRNA and proteins. This is critical for(More)
MOTIVATION Statistical assessment of cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) is a crucial task in computational biology. Usually, one concludes from exceptional co-occurrences of DNA motifs that the corresponding transcription factors (TFs) are cooperative. However, similar DNA motifs tend to co-occur in random sequences due to high probability of overlapping(More)
Transcription factors (TFs) play a key role in gene regulation by binding to target sequences. In silico prediction of potential binding to a sequence is a main task in computational biology. Although many methods have been proposed to tackle this problem, the statistical significance of the prediction is still not solved. We propose an approach to give a(More)
Pay-for-performance programs are often aimed to improve the management of chronic diseases. We evaluate the impact of a local pay for performance programme (QOF+), which rewarded financially more ambitious quality targets ('stretch targets') than those used nationally in the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF). We focus on targets for intermediate outcomes(More)
OBJECTIVES To examine differences in blood pressure control using the 2006 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines and the 2007 Quality and Outcome Framework (QOF) standards. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING 28 general practices located in Wandsworth, London. PARTICIPANTS Hypertensive patients aged 17 years and(More)
BACKGROUND Understanding how urbanisation and rural-urban migration influence risk-factors for non-communicable disease (NCD) is crucial for developing effective preventative strategies globally. This study compares NCD risk-factor prevalence in urban, rural and migrant populations in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa. METHODS Study(More)