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Anatoxin-a, a potent neurotoxin, is one of a number of toxins produced by cyanobacteria especially some strains of Anabaena. Toxic cyanobacteria are found worldwide in inland and coastal water environments. The present study was performed to evaluate the toxicity of anatoxin-a on testes and sperm counts of male mice. The animals of the treatment groups were(More)
Ascites is one of the main features of liver decompensation in cirrhosis, and it is considered to be a dynamic process. In this study, we aimed to (1) measure the reabsorption rate of ascites; (2) evaluate whether these findings were related to features of ascites, hemodynamics, and serum measurements; and (3) examine morphologic changes in the diaphragm of(More)
OBJECTIVES Epilepsy during the pregnancy is an important problem in clinical practice for newborn individuals. Recently, it has been demonstrated that mothers' epileptic seizures have some harmful effects on newborns, but present data concerning the effects of epileptic phenomena in pregnant mothers on newborn pups are still limited. The current study was(More)
Multicellular tumor spheroids (MTS) are three-dimensional structural forms of tumors grown in vitro in the laboratory. In this study, the aim was to determine the regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expressions on MTS in response to treatment with the commonly used anti-cancer drugs Doxorubicin(More)
This study aims to investigate the effect of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on rat kidney cortex histology. Oral exposure of rats to 2,4-D for 28 days resulted in decreases in body weight gain and kidney weight. Histological examination showed degeneration in renal corpuscles and podocytes; vacuolization in the glomerulus with disintegration of the(More)
Dopaminergic neuronal loss in Parkinson's disease (PD) results from oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and excitotoxicity. Because erythropoietin (EPO) has been shown to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in many previous studies, present study was designed to evaluate the effect of EPO on rotenone-induced dopaminergic neuronal(More)
The preservatives benzalkonium chloride (BZC) and potassium sorbate (PS) are widely used in the formulation of nasal drops and cosmetics. Recently, a number of side effects that resulted from mucosal irritation caused by BZC and PS have been reported. Therefore, this study was performed to investigate the possible clinical and histological alterations(More)
BACKGROUND One of the major concerns is a nephropathy in diabetes, which applies many different kinds of medicines. However, required level of the treatment of renal disease has not been achieved. AIM To investigate and compare the effect of the enalapril and the exenatide on diabetic nephropathy in rats developed diabetes by streptozosin. MATERIAL AND(More)
Cortical dysplasia is a malformation characterized by defects in proliferation, migration and maturation. This study was designed to evaluate the alterations in offspring rat cerebellum induced by maternal exposure to carmustine-[1,3-bis (2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosoure] (BCNU) and to investigate the effects of exogenous melatonin upon cerebellar BCNU-induced(More)
OBJECTIVES Cortical dysplasia is a cortical malformation resulting from any developmental defects during different periods of development. This study aims to investigate the hippocampal histopathological alterations in the neonates with cortical dysplasia due to the prenatal exposure to carmustine (1,3-bis (2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea; BCNU) and the(More)