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The primary reason patients seek aesthetic treatments is to combat the signs of aging. However, the majority of facial treatments and procedures fill specific wrinkles or pull-taught sagging skin, without returning the volume and contours of a youthful face. Injectable poly-L-lactic acid (Sculptra) is a synthetic, biodegradable polymer, popular in Europe(More)
BACKGROUND Facial lipoatrophy has been observed to occur in a variety of patient populations, with inherited or acquired disease, or even in aging patients as a natural progression of tissue change over time. There is currently no framework from which physicians of all medical specialties can communally discuss the manifestations, diagnoses, and management(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are crucial pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) for activation of innate and adapted immunity. TLR2 heterodimerizes with TLR1 or TLR6 to recognize multiple pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) of fungi, Gram-positive pathogens, and mycobacteria. Receptor activation culminates in monocyte, T-helper (Th)1, and Th2(More)
BACKGROUND The availability and variety of different injectable modalities has led to a dramatic increase in soft tissue augmentation procedures in recent years. Injectable poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) is a synthetic, biodegradable polymer device approved in the United States for use in immunocompetent patients as a single regimen of up to four treatment(More)
In recent years, we have carried out 146 fine-needle aspiration cytologies (FNAC) for diagnostic clarification of putative metastases from melanomas. The cytodiagnostic appraisal was based on general criteria for the malignancy of tumour cells as well as on particular melanoma-specific findings. Different cell variants can be differentiated in cytological(More)