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The anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG) is part of a neural network implicated in attention-demanding tasks, such as the experience of pain. However, the regions within the ACG responding to cognitive demands and to painful stimulation are not identical. Since directing attention away from a painful stimulus is known to reduce the perceived pain intensity, we(More)
OBJECTIVE We sought to identify central loci that activate in response to visceral stimuli (stool and pain). We had a particular interest in observing the anterior cingulate gyrus and frontal cortex in normals and in patients with intestinal disease, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS Subjects underwent(More)
Connexin-43 in relation to gap junctions between astrocytes and between other cell types in rat spinal cord was investigated immunohistochemically. In gray matter, connexin-43 was distributed thoughout all laminae, but was more concentrated in the substantia gelatinosa and around the central canal. Ultrastructurally, immunostaining was present in the(More)
The recently cloned and characterized hyaluronan (HA) receptor RHAMM (receptor for HA-mediated motility) has been shown to play a critical role in mechanisms underlying the motile capacity of a variety of peripheral cell types. Similarities in molecular processes that govern cell locomotion and growth cone migration prompted us to investigate whether RHAMM(More)
Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the human spinal cord is carried out with a graded thermal stimulus in order to establish the relationship between signal changes and neural activity. Studies of the lumbar spinal cord in 15 healthy subjects with 10 degrees C stimulation of the skin overlying the calf demonstrate a pattern of activity that matches(More)
Blood-oxygen level dependent signal changes in the visual cortex were investigated as a function of echo time with spin-echo and gradient-echo EPI at 1.5 T and 3 T. The linear relationship between the fractional signal change and the echo time was apparent in all cases. Relaxation rate changes determined from the slope of this linear relation agree with(More)
The present study investigates how pain modulates brain activity during the performance of a semantic cognitive task. Based on previous observations, we hypothesized that a simultaneous painful stimulus will induce an activation increase in brain regions engaged in the cognitive task. High-field BOLD-fMRI experiments were conducted on 12 young healthy(More)
To examine the possible role of interastrocytic gap junctions in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis after spinal cord damage, we initiated studies of the astrocytic gap junctional protein connexin43 (Cx43) in relation to temporal and spatial parameters of neuronal loss, reactive gliosis, and white matter survival in a rat model of traumatic spinal cord(More)
The fractional signal intensity change (Delta S/S) observed during activation in T(2)-weighted fMRI of the spinal cord has previously been shown to depend linearly on the echo time (TE) but to have a positive value of roughly 2.5% extrapolated to zero TE. In this study we investigated the origin of this finding by measuring the Delta S/S in spinal fMRI with(More)
Contrast changes observed in functional magnetic resonance imaging in the human spinal cord were investigated with both motor and sensory tasks over a range of echo times. Data were acquired using a single-shot fast spin-echo sequence at 1.5 Tesla. Data were analyzed with two different correlation thresholds and the effects of altering the order of repeated(More)