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PURPOSE To determine the influence of epilepsy and its treatment on pregnancy and its outcome. DESIGN Controlled, observational study. SETTING National Health Service maternity hospitals in Liverpool and Manchester regions. POPULATION 277 women with epilepsy (WWE) and 315 control women. METHODS WWE were recruited from antenatal clinics. Controls(More)
Skip segment Hirschsprung's disease is a condition where an area of normally ganglionated intestine is interspersed proximally and distally by aganglionic segments. The occurrence of skip segment has no clear embryological explanation, contrary to the present concept of failure of cranio-caudal migration of neural crest-derived cells in Hirschsprung's(More)
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, though usually systemic, has been known to cause localised involvement of organs like lung, liver, testis and gastrointestinal tract. We report a case of cytomegaloviral infection involving the epididymis without systemic manifestations in an young male one month after renal transplantation. The diagnosis was made on(More)
The risk of an adverse outcome to pregnancy is increased in women with epilepsy. This is partly attributable to antiepileptic drugs. Guidelines for the management of pregnancy in women with epilepsy generally advise against polytherapy but make no distinction between the risks of different drugs. Several recent studies have however shown greater risk of(More)
The Tzanck smear is a simple, sensitive, and rapid test to diagnose pemphigus vulgaris (PV), a life threatening autoimmune blistering disorder. The presence of acantholytic cells in cytology is indicative of but not specific for PV. Hence, a direct Immunofluorescence (DIF) test to demonstrate immunoglobulin deposits on the acantholytic cells would make the(More)
BACKGROUND Immunity status, individual response to disease and types of antibodies produced are well known to vary from person to person, place to place and probably from population to population. A broad spectrum of specific auto antibodies that have so far been associated with specific rheumatic diseases, as noted in Western literature, has been well(More)
Eosinophilic pleural effusions (EPFs), defined as the presence of 10% or more eosinophils in the pleural fluid, are relatively rare. Their diagnostic and prognostic significance, however, remains controversial, as most of the studies are based almost entirely on retrospective case studies. This prospective study examines 26 eosinophilic pleural effusions(More)
BACKGROUND Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) histochemistry on rectal mucosal biopsies accurately diagnoses Hirschsprung disease (HD), but is not widely employed as it requires special tissue handling and pathologist expertise. Calretinin immunohistochemistry (IHC) has been reported to be comparable to AChE staining with the loss of expression correlating with(More)
Tuberculosis (TB) is a common infection affecting patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and diabetes mellitus (DM). With the increasing incidence of HIV infection and DM in a developing country like India, TB is definitely on the rise. In a given population, one expects to see these three diseases in varying combinations, such as HIV and TB, DM(More)