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OBJECTIVES To determine the prevalence of cognitive delay and possible associated dysmorphic features in children exposed to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in utero. DESIGN Retrospective study of children born to mothers with epilepsy. SETTING Regional epilepsy clinics in Liverpool and Manchester, UK. PARTICIPANTS Children aged between 6 months and 16(More)
PURPOSE To determine the influence of epilepsy and its treatment on pregnancy and its outcome. DESIGN Controlled, observational study. SETTING National Health Service maternity hospitals in Liverpool and Manchester regions. POPULATION 277 women with epilepsy (WWE) and 315 control women. METHODS WWE were recruited from antenatal clinics. Controls(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the long-term differential drug effects on cognitive functioning in school-aged children exposed to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in utero. METHODS Mothers with epilepsy were recruited from specialist epilepsy clinics and obstetric clinics from the Liverpool and Manchester region. The mothers and their children were recruited without(More)
The risk of an adverse outcome to pregnancy is increased in women with epilepsy. This is partly attributable to antiepileptic drugs. Guidelines for the management of pregnancy in women with epilepsy generally advise against polytherapy but make no distinction between the risks of different drugs. Several recent studies have however shown greater risk of(More)
Glycosylphophatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins play important roles in many biological processes, and mutations affecting proteins involved in the synthesis of the GPI anchor are reported to cause a wide spectrum of intellectual disabilities (IDs) with characteristic additional phenotypic features. Here, we describe a total of five individuals (from(More)
Isolated congenital asplenia (ICA) is characterized by the absence of a spleen at birth in individuals with no other developmental defects. The patients are prone to life-threatening bacterial infections. The unbiased analysis of exomes revealed heterozygous mutations in RPSA in 18 patients from eight kindreds, corresponding to more than half the patients(More)
To assess factors influencing the success of whole-genome sequencing for mainstream clinical diagnosis, we sequenced 217 individuals from 156 independent cases or families across a broad spectrum of disorders in whom previous screening had identified no pathogenic variants. We quantified the number of candidate variants identified using different strategies(More)
Primary microcephaly is a genetically heterogeneous condition characterized by reduced head circumference (-3 SDS or more) and mild-to-moderate learning disability. Here, we describe clinical and molecular investigations of a microcephalic child with sensorineural hearing loss. Although consanguinity was unreported initially, detection of 13.7 Mb of copy(More)
Periventricular nodular heterotopia is caused by defective neuronal migration that results in heterotopic neuronal nodules lining the lateral ventricles. Mutations in filamin A (FLNA) or ADP-ribosylation factor guanine nucleotide-exchange factor 2 (ARFGEF2) cause periventricular nodular heterotopia, but most patients with this malformation do not have a(More)
The development of next generation sequencing (NGS) has radically transformed the scientific landscape, making it possible to sequence the exome of any given individual in a cost-effective way. The power of this approach has been demonstrated by a number of groups who have identified pathogenic mutations in small pedigrees that have been resistant to(More)