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BACKGROUND The Direct Repeat locus of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) is a member of the CRISPR (Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) sequences family. Spoligotyping is the widely used PCR-based reverse-hybridization blotting technique that assays the genetic diversity of this locus and is useful both for clinical(More)
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES The prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is increasing throughout the world. Although previous treatment for TB is the most important risk factor for development of MDR-TB, treatment-naοve patients are also at risk due to either spontaneous mutations or transmission of drug-resistant strains. We sought to ascertain(More)
The aim of the present study was to compare polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods--spoligotyping and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRU) typing--with the gold-standard IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis in 101 isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to determine the genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis(More)
One hundred five Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from the Delhi area were typed by spoligotyping; 45 patterns were identified. Comparison with an international spoligotype database showed type 26, Delhi type (22%), type 54 (12%), and type 1, Beijing type (8%), as the most common. Eighteen spoligotypes did not match any existing database pattern.
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has emerged as a significant global health concern. The most important risk factor for the development of MDR-TB is previous anti-tuberculosis therapy. Category II pulmonary TB includes those patients who had failed previous TB treatment, relapsed after treatment, or defaulted during previous(More)
BACKGROUND Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most common form of neurotuberculosis and the fifth most common form of extrapulmonary TB. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are the cornerstones of effective disease management. The accurate diagnosis of TBM poses a challenge due to an extensive differential diagnosis, low bacterial load and paucity of(More)
BACKGROUND India with a major burden of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) does not have national level data on this hazardous disease. Since 2006, emergence of extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) is considered a serious threat to global TB control. This study highlights the demographic and clinical risk factors associated with XDR-TB in Delhi. (More)
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES Tuberculosis (TB) is a public health problem worldwide. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis is crucial to facilitate early treatment of infectious cases and to reduce its spread. The present study was aimed to evaluation of 16 kDa antigen as a serodiagnostic tool in pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis patients in an(More)
BACKGROUND Newer molecular diagnostics have brought paradigm shift in early diagnosis of tuberculosis [TB]. WHO recommended use of GeneXpert MTB/RIF [Xpert] for Extra-pulmonary [EP] TB; critics have since questioned its efficiency. METHODS The present study was designed to assess the performance of GeneXpert in 761 extra-pulmonary and 384 pulmonary(More)