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This year marks the 20th anniversary of functional near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging (fNIRS/fNIRI). As the vast majority of commercial instruments developed until now are based on continuous wave technology, the aim of this publication is to review the current state of instrumentation and methodology of continuous wave fNIRI. For this purpose we(More)
The basic parameters for physiological measurements provided by near-infrared spectroscopy are the local absorption and scattering coefficients. For the adult human head, they have been difficult to measure noninvasively because of the layered structure of the head. The results of measurements of absorption and reduced scattering coefficients through the(More)
Millisecond changes in the optical properties of the human brain during stimulation were detected in five volunteers using noninvasive frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy. During a motor stimulation task we found highly significant signals, which were directly related to neuronal activity and exhibited much more localized patterns than the slow(More)
Neurovascular coupling is the generic term for changes in cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO(2)), cerebral blood flow, and cerebral blood volume related to brain activity. The goal of this paper is to better understand the effects of neurovascular coupling in the visual and motor cortices using frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy. Maps of(More)
Since the first demonstration of how to simultaneously measure brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) on two subjects about 10 years ago, a new paradigm in neuroscience is emerging: measuring brain activity from two or more people simultaneously, termed "hyperscanning". The hyperscanning approach has the potential to reveal(More)
The aim was to investigate the effect of different speech tasks, i.e. recitation of prose (PR), alliteration (AR) and hexameter (HR) verses and a control task (mental arithmetic (MA) with voicing of the result on end-tidal CO2 (PETCO2), cerebral hemodynamics and oxygenation. CO2 levels in the blood are known to strongly affect cerebral blood flow. Speech(More)
PURPOSE Near-infrared spectrophotometry is used to measure flow, concentration, and oxygenation of hemoglobin in arterioles, capillaries, and venules several centimeters deep in tissue. The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution of flow, concentration, and oxygenation of hemoglobin in calf muscle in patients with documented peripheral(More)
The aim of our study was to explore the possibility of detecting hemodynamic changes in the brain using the phase of the intensity modulated optical signal. To obtain optical signals with the highest possible signal-to-noise ratio, we performed a series of simultaneous NIRS-fMRI measurements, with subsequent correlation of the time courses of both(More)
The total cerebral haemoglobin concentration (tHb in mumol/l) as a major indicator of the oxygen transport capacity is investigated in neonates. Two methods to determine tHb by near infrared spectrophotometry (NIRS) have evolved so far: The first method requires a slow oxygenation change with reference to arterial oxygen saturation (tHbo-method). The second(More)
INTRODUCTION The Health Technology Assessment report on effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and appropriateness of homeopathy was compiled on behalf of the Swiss Federal Office for Public Health (BAG) within the framework of the 'Program of Evaluation of Complementary Medicine (PEK)'. MATERIALS AND METHODS Databases accessible by Internet were(More)