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BACKGROUND Several studies have assessed the effects of training using patient simulation systems on medical skills. However, endocrine and psychological stress responses in a patient simulation situation and the relationship between stress reactivity and medical performance have been studied rarely, so far. METHODS Medical students (18 males and 16(More)
The infusion of cytotoxic drugs in cancer patients is often accompanied by posttreatment nausea (PN). In addition, patients complain about nausea prior to an infusion [i.e., anticipatory nausea (AN)]. AN is mainly explained by classical conditioning, with the infusion as the unconditioned stimulus (US) and with the stimuli signaling the infusion as(More)
Classical fear acquisition and extinction are important models for the etiology and treatment of anxiety disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Women are at a higher risk for PTSD than men. Levels of circulating 17-β estradiol (E2) in women have been linked to deficits in fear extinction and extinction recall. In PTSD, fear learning(More)
Pavlovian conditioning of immune functions provided early impetus to the rapidly expanding knowledge of bi-directional communication among the immune, endocrine, and central nervous systems. Since these early investigations, the phenomenology of this response has been well characterized. However the neural mechanisms and biological relevance of conditioned(More)
  • U Stockhorst
  • 1994
Based on the delay-reduction hypothesis, a less profitable schedule should be rejected if its duration exceeds the mean delay to reinforcement. It should be accepted if its duration is shorter than the mean delay. This was tested for humans, using a successive-choice schedule. The accessibility of the less profitable (variable-interval 18 s) schedule was(More)
Insulin is mainly known for its peripheral effects on the metabolism of glucose, fats, and proteins. However, insulin also exerts important actions within the brain, and functions as a neuropeptide. The brain can thus be regarded as both an insulin-sensitive and a glucose-sensitive organ. Its neuroanatomical basis is the localization of insulin receptors,(More)
INTRODUCTION Susceptibility to motion sickness (MS) is known to be affected by gender and ethnic origin, but whether gender and ethnicity are interacting is unknown. METHODS We investigated MS development in healthy Caucasian subjects (n = 227), and in subjects of Chinese origin (n = 82). All subjects were exposed to nausea-inducing body rotations in a(More)
OBJECTIVES Pre-exposure to an environment in which a nausea-inducing body rotation will subsequently be given constitutes a latent inhibition procedure that might act to reduce anticipatory and postrotation nausea. METHODS This was tested in 24 healthy subjects randomly assigned to receive no pre-exposure (group 0), a single pre-exposure (group 1), or(More)
UNLABELLED There is considerable evidence from studies in adult patients that classical conditioning contributes to anticipatory nausea and/or vomiting (ANV) in cancer chemotherapy: The stimuli predicting the infusion serve as conditioned stimuli (CS). When reexposed to the CS, some patients experience ANV prior to infusion onset. In adult patients,(More)
OBJECTIVE Pavlovian conditioning of taste aversion has rarely been investigated in healthy humans using motion sickness as the unconditioned stimulus (US). METHODS Ninety subjects were pretested for susceptibility to illusory motion (vection) in a rotating drum. Thirty-two subjects susceptible to pseudomotion were assigned randomly to two groups and(More)