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In the optic nerve head, the optic nerve fibers are represented by the neuroretinal rim. The rim area showing a high interindividual variability is positively correlated with the optic disc size. This study was performed to address the question of whether, in addition to having a larger neuroretinal rim, eyes with large optic discs also have a higher count(More)
PURPOSE To determine whether lymphatic vessels exist in vascularized human corneas, by using immunohistochemistry with novel markers for lymphatic endothelium. METHODS Human corneas exhibiting neovascularization secondary to keratitis, transplant rejection, trauma, and limbal insufficiency (n = 21) were assessed for lymphatic vessel content by(More)
This study was undertaken to measure number, diameter and distribution of nerve fibers in normal human optic nerves. Twenty-two optic nerves of 19 subjects aged between 20 and 75 years were histomorphometrically examined using semithin sections obtained in a distance of 2 to 5 mm behind the globe. The mean nerve fiber count was 1,159,000 +/- 196,000 with a(More)
Members of the type IV collagen family are essential components of all basement membranes (BMs) and define structural stability as well as tissue-specific functions. The major isoform, alpha1.alpha1.alpha2(IV), contributes to the formation of many BMs and its deficiency causes embryonic lethality in mouse. We have identified an allelic series of three ENU(More)
The lamina cribrosa is a sieve-like perforation in the posterior part of the sclera, that allows passage of the retinal ganglion cell axons and central retinal vessels and preserves a pressure gradient between the intraocular and extraocular space. It has been termed the primary site of glaucomatous damage to the optic nerve. Using electron microscopy, the(More)
PURPOSE To determine the expression and precise cellular and subcellular localization of the EP prostanoid receptor subtypes EP(1) through EP(4) and the FP receptor in normal human ocular tissues on the protein and mRNA levels. METHODS Expression of EP and FP receptor proteins was examined by immunohistochemistry on the light microscopic level, using(More)
Hereditary spastic paraplegias are a group of inherited motor neuron diseases characterized by progressive paraparesis and spasticity. Mutations in the spastic paraplegia gene SPG11, encoding spatacsin, cause an autosomal-recessive disease trait; however, the precise knowledge about the role of spatacsin in neurons is very limited. We for the first time(More)
The hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are a heterogeneous group of motorneuron diseases characterized by progressive spasticity and paresis of the lower limbs. Mutations in Spastic Gait 4 (SPG4), encoding spastin, are the most frequent cause of HSP. To understand how mutations in SPG4 affect human neurons, we generated human induced pluripotent stem(More)
PURPOSE Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the predominant form of chronic glaucoma, but the underlying pathologic mechanisms are largely unknown. Because prostaglandins (PGs) have been introduced into POAG treatment with remarkable success, this study was undertaken to investigate whether a change in the expression of the PG-synthesizing enzymes(More)
PURPOSE To determine the presence, activity, and quantitative differences of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their endogenous inhibitors (TIMPs) in aqueous humor and serum samples of patients with pseudoexfoliation (PEX) syndrome, PEX glaucoma (PEXG), primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), and cataract. METHODS Aqueous humor and serum samples were(More)